Abstract

We studied e-beam evaporated TiO2 films deposited at two different substrate temperatures between 120°C and 300°C. We reliably characterized the film samples on the basis of in situ and ex situ measurements. We carried out annealing on the samples and studied the induced changes in the properties of the films. The results can be useful for further laser-induced damage threshold investigations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

N. Ghrairi, M. Bouaicha, “Structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electrophoretic deposition technique,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 357–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, G. DeBell, V. Pervak, A. K. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, D. Ristau, “Optical parameters of oxide films typically used in optical coating production,” Appl. Opt. 50, C75–C85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

B. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Rong, “Microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rates,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 1429–1433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Valencia, J. M. Marín, G. Restrepo, “Study of the bandgap of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticules using the sol-gel method and a hydrothermal treatment,” Open Mater. Sci. J. 4, 9–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H.-C. Chen, K.-S. Lee, C.-C. Lee, “Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods,” Appl. Opt. 47, C284–C287 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, S. Bruns, “New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010B (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Capan, N. B. Chaure, A. K. Hassan, A. K. Ray, “Optical dispersion in spun nanocrystalline titania thin films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 198–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sreemany, S. Sen, “A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of the optical constants and band gap energy of multiple layer TiO2 thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 83, 169–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, G. DeBell, “On the accuracy of optical thin film parameter determination based on spectrophotometric data,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 190–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, “Optical and electrical characterization of the electron beam gun evaporated TiO2 film,” Microelectron. Reliab. 41, 1057–1061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. B. Lucy, J. Beynon, D. N. Waters, “Optical properties of co-evaporated Cu-GeO2 thin cermet films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 515–518 (1996).

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L.-J. Meng, M. P. dos Santos, “Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures,” Thin Solid Films 226, 22–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Aarik, J.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aidla, A.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amotchkina, T.

T. Amotchkina, M. Turowski, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, “Bandgap and refractive index of TiO2 films of different densities,” in OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2013), paper WA.4.

Amotchkina, T. V.

Anderson, O.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Angelov, I. B.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bange, K.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beister, G.

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beynon, J.

I. B. Lucy, J. Beynon, D. N. Waters, “Optical properties of co-evaporated Cu-GeO2 thin cermet films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 515–518 (1996).

Bouaicha, M.

N. Ghrairi, M. Bouaicha, “Structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electrophoretic deposition technique,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 357–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, S.

M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, S. Bruns, “New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buschendorf, D.

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cab, C.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capan, R.

R. Capan, N. B. Chaure, A. K. Hassan, A. K. Ray, “Optical dispersion in spun nanocrystalline titania thin films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 198–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaure, N. B.

R. Capan, N. B. Chaure, A. K. Hassan, A. K. Ray, “Optical dispersion in spun nanocrystalline titania thin films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 198–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-C.

Chen, J.

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

de Coss, R.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeBell, G.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, G. DeBell, V. Pervak, A. K. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, D. Ristau, “Optical parameters of oxide films typically used in optical coating production,” Appl. Opt. 50, C75–C85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, G. DeBell, “On the accuracy of optical thin film parameter determination based on spectrophotometric data,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 190–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, M. P.

L.-J. Meng, M. P. dos Santos, “Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures,” Thin Solid Films 226, 22–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drazdys, R.

Eggert, S.

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, H.

Eisenstein, G.

V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, “Optical and electrical characterization of the electron beam gun evaporated TiO2 film,” Microelectron. Reliab. 41, 1057–1061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Espinosa-Pesqueira, M. E.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feile, R.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frauenheim, T.

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

Ghrairi, N.

N. Ghrairi, M. Bouaicha, “Structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electrophoretic deposition technique,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 357–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grammes, R.

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, M. L.

Gross, T.

Hacker, E.

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C. H.

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamdi, M.

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, M. M.

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, A. K.

R. Capan, N. B. Chaure, A. K. Hassan, A. K. Ray, “Optical dispersion in spun nanocrystalline titania thin films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 198–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Irene, E. A.

H. G. Tompkins, E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

Jaing, C.-C.

Jensen, L.

Jeschkowski, U.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jupé, M.

Karsch, S.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kicas, S.

Kiisler, A.-A.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, T.

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Köppen, S.

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Landmann, M.

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lappschies, M.

Laube, M.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, K.-S.

Li, Z.

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lucy, I. B.

I. B. Lucy, J. Beynon, D. N. Waters, “Optical properties of co-evaporated Cu-GeO2 thin cermet films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 515–518 (1996).

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2010).

Major, Z.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mangote, B.

Marín, J. M.

S. Valencia, J. M. Marín, G. Restrepo, “Study of the bandgap of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticules using the sol-gel method and a hydrothermal treatment,” Open Mater. Sci. J. 4, 9–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masjuki, H. H.

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melninkaitis, A.

Mende, M.

Meng, L.-J.

L.-J. Meng, M. P. dos Santos, “Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures,” Thin Solid Films 226, 22–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, D.

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhelashvili, V.

V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, “Optical and electrical characterization of the electron beam gun evaporated TiO2 film,” Microelectron. Reliab. 41, 1057–1061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirauskas, J.

Oskam, G.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ottermann, C. R.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paesold, G.

Perry, M.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pervak, V.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, T. V. Amotchkina, G. DeBell, V. Pervak, A. K. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, D. Ristau, “Optical parameters of oxide films typically used in optical coating production,” Appl. Opt. 50, C75–C85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poelman, D.

D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).

Pulker, H. K.

Rauls, E.

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ray, A. K.

R. Capan, N. B. Chaure, A. K. Hassan, A. K. Ray, “Optical dispersion in spun nanocrystalline titania thin films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 198–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Restrepo, G.

S. Valencia, J. M. Marín, G. Restrepo, “Study of the bandgap of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticules using the sol-gel method and a hydrothermal treatment,” Open Mater. Sci. J. 4, 9–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Coronado, D.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Ritter, E.

Rodríguez-Gattorno, G.

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rong, L.

B. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Rong, “Microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rates,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 1429–1433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saidur, R.

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sammelselg, V.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samset, B.

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, G.

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W. G.

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sen, S.

M. Sreemany, S. Sen, “A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of the optical constants and band gap energy of multiple layer TiO2 thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 83, 169–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sieber, W.

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sirutkaitis, V.

Smet, P. F.

D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).

Sreemany, M.

M. Sreemany, S. Sen, “A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of the optical constants and band gap energy of multiple layer TiO2 thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 83, 169–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra: An Introduction, Vol. 44 of Springer Series in Surface Sciences (Springer, 2005).

Stuart, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sytchkova, A. K.

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A.

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, G. DeBell, “On the accuracy of optical thin film parameter determination based on spectrophotometric data,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 190–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Tolenis, T.

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins, E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

Trubetskov, M.

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, G. DeBell, “On the accuracy of optical thin film parameter determination based on spectrophotometric data,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 190–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

Trushin, S. A.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turowski, M.

T. Amotchkina, M. Turowski, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, “Bandgap and refractive index of TiO2 films of different densities,” in OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2013), paper WA.4.

Uustare, T.

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valencia, S.

S. Valencia, J. M. Marín, G. Restrepo, “Study of the bandgap of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticules using the sol-gel method and a hydrothermal treatment,” Open Mater. Sci. J. 4, 9–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vancu, A.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Vergöhl, M.

M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, S. Bruns, “New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010B (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Conta, A.

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Waters, D. N.

I. B. Lucy, J. Beynon, D. N. Waters, “Optical properties of co-evaporated Cu-GeO2 thin cermet films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 515–518 (1996).

Werner, O.

M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, S. Bruns, “New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S.-H.

Xi, Y.

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Rong, “Microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rates,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 1429–1433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

B. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Rong, “Microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rates,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 1429–1433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 416, 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

C. Yang, H. Fan, Y. Xi, J. Chen, Z. Li, “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 2685–2689 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Yoo, I. Kim, S. Kim, C. H. Hahn, C. Lee, S. Cho, “Effects of annealing temperature and method on structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3888–3892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Poelman, P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1850–1857 (2003).

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

I. B. Lucy, J. Beynon, D. N. Waters, “Optical properties of co-evaporated Cu-GeO2 thin cermet films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15, 515–518 (1996).

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Sreemany, S. Sen, “A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of the optical constants and band gap energy of multiple layer TiO2 thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 83, 169–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, “Optical and electrical characterization of the electron beam gun evaporated TiO2 film,” Microelectron. Reliab. 41, 1057–1061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

N. Ghrairi, M. Bouaicha, “Structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electrophoretic deposition technique,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 357–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. Reyes-Coronado, G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, M. E. Espinosa-Pesqueira, C. Cab, R. de Coss, G. Oskam, “Phase-pure TiO2 nanoparticles: anatase, brookite, and rutile,” Nanotechnology 19, 145605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Open Mater. Sci. J. (1)

S. Valencia, J. M. Marín, G. Restrepo, “Study of the bandgap of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticules using the sol-gel method and a hydrothermal treatment,” Open Mater. Sci. J. 4, 9–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki, M. Hamdi, “Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films,” Opt. Mater. 32, 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, M. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Landmann, T. Köhler, S. Köppen, E. Rauls, T. Frauenheim, W. G. Schmidt, “Fingerprints of order and disorder in the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous TiO2,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, G. DeBell, “On the accuracy of optical thin film parameter determination based on spectrophotometric data,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 190–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Angelov, A. von Conta, S. A. Trushin, Z. Major, S. Karsch, F. Krausz, V. Pervak, “Investigation of the laser-induced damage of dispersive coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900B (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, S. Bruns, “New developments in magnetron sputter processes for precision optics,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Capan, N. B. Chaure, A. K. Hassan, A. K. Ray, “Optical dispersion in spun nanocrystalline titania thin films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 198–202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, O. Anderson, U. Jeschkowski, M. Laube, R. Feile, “Investigations of TiO2 films deposited by different techniques,” Thin Solid Films 197, 279–285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L.-J. Meng, M. P. dos Santos, “Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures,” Thin Solid Films 226, 22–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Aarik, A. Aidla, A.-A. Kiisler, T. Uustare, V. Sammelselg, “Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 305, 270–273 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Mergel, D. Buschendorf, S. Eggert, R. Grammes, B. Samset, “Density and refractive index of TiO2 films prepared by reactive evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 371, 218–224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller, G. Beister, W. Sieber, G. Schirmer, E. Hacker, “Influence of deposition parameters on the optical and structural properties of TiO2 films produced by reactive d.c. plasmatron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 83, 239–245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China (1)

B. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Rong, “Microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rates,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 1429–1433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1999).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2010).

T. Amotchkina, M. Turowski, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, “Bandgap and refractive index of TiO2 films of different densities,” in OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2013), paper WA.4.

O. Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra: An Introduction, Vol. 44 of Springer Series in Surface Sciences (Springer, 2005).

H. G. Tompkins, E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of in situ and ex situ transmittance data related to samples S1 (a) and S2 (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive indices of S1 (a) and S3 (b) films found from ex situ and in situ data using different models.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive indices of e-beam evaporated TiO 2 films at 500 nm before and after annealing (see Tables 1 and 2). The refractive index of IBS TiO 2 film is presented for comparison. Solid curve represents Lorentz–Lorenz dependence Eq. (4).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Refractive indices and (b) extinction coefficients of TiO 2 films deposited at different substrate temperatures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transmittance and (b) reflectance spectra taken for sample S2 before and after annealing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Transmittance and (b) reflectance spectra taken for sample S4 before and after annealing.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Refractive indices and (b) extinction coefficients of TiO 2 films before and after annealing.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Model optical constants and (b) absorption coefficient of model sample calculated by Eqs. (6) and (7).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Solid curves: (a) Tauc plots for the estimation of direct and (b) indirect band gaps; dashed lines: corresponding linear fits. The data are related to S2 sample after annealing.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of TiO 2 Films

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters of TiO 2 Films before and after Annealing

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( λ ) = A 0 + A 1 λ 2 + A 2 λ 4 , k ( λ ) = B 0 exp [ B 2 λ 1 + B 3 λ ] .
Δ n = ( n 2 + n s ) 3 8 n n s ( n s n 2 ) Δ T .
n = 1 2 ( 3 p 1 ) n b 2 + ( 2 3 p ) n v 2 + ( ( 3 p 1 ) n b 2 + ( 2 3 p ) n v 2 ) 2 + 8 n b 2 n v 2 ,
n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = C ρ ,
α ( E ) = B ( E E g ) m E ,
α = 4 π λ k ( λ ) , E = 1240 λ ,
α 1 d ln ( T ) .

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