Abstract

Our recent studies on nodular damage in dielectric multilayer mirrors were first reviewed, and the main findings are taken as a foundation to further investigate the influence of seed absorptivity and asymmetrical boundary on the laser-induced damage of nodules. Experimental results showed that the seed absorptivity had a big influence on laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of the prepared nodules. A direct link between the cross-sectional |E|2 distributions and damage morphologies of nodules was found, which can perfectly explain the observed dependence of LIDTs on seed absorptivity. Another series of asymmetrical nodules were also studied in this work. The measured LIDTs of asymmetrical nodules were about 40%–70% lower than the LIDTs of the symmetrical nodules initiating from the same-sized SiO2 seeds. The weaker mechanical stability and the nonuniform |E|2 distributions are two main reasons for the lower laser damage resistance of the asymmetrical nodules.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. F. DeFord and M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of electric-field enhancement at nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 455–472 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Génin, and T. V. Pistor, “Electric-field enhancement by nodular defects in multilayer coatings irradiated at normal and 45° incidence,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 41–49 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Stolz, M. D. Feit, and T. V. Pistor, “Laser intensification by spherical inclusions embedded within multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1594–1601 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Stolz, M. D. Feit, and T. V. Pistor, “Light intensification modeling of coating inclusions irradiated at 351 and 1053  nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, C162–C166 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Wei, K. Yi, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of composition and seed dimension on the structure and laser damage of nodular defects in HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6781–6788 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Liao, D. J. Smith, and B. Mcintyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1987).
  13. M. Poulinguea, M. Ignat, and J. Dijon, “The effects of particle pollution on the mechanical behavior of multilayered systems,” Thin Solid Films 348, 215–221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Génin, and T. V. Pistor, “Electric-field enhancement by nodular defects in multilayer coatings irradiated at normal and 45° incidence,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 41–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulinguea, M. Ignat, and J. Dijon, “The effects of particle pollution on the mechanical behavior of multilayered systems,” Thin Solid Films 348, 215–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. F. DeFord and M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of electric-field enhancement at nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 455–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, and B. Mcintyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1987).

Balooch, M.

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bodemann, A.

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DeFord, J. F.

J. F. DeFord and M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of electric-field enhancement at nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 455–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dijon, J.

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulinguea, M. Ignat, and J. Dijon, “The effects of particle pollution on the mechanical behavior of multilayered systems,” Thin Solid Films 348, 215–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ding, T.

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Feit, M. D.

Génin, F. Y.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Génin, and T. V. Pistor, “Electric-field enhancement by nodular defects in multilayer coatings irradiated at normal and 45° incidence,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 41–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ignat, M.

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulinguea, M. Ignat, and J. Dijon, “The effects of particle pollution on the mechanical behavior of multilayered systems,” Thin Solid Films 348, 215–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, H.

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M.

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

J. F. DeFord and M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of electric-field enhancement at nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 455–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leplan, H.

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liao, B.

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, and B. Mcintyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1987).

Lu, J.

Ma, B.

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mcintyre, B.

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, and B. Mcintyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1987).

Pierce, E.

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pistor, T. V.

Poulingue, M.

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poulinguea, M.

M. Poulinguea, M. Ignat, and J. Dijon, “The effects of particle pollution on the mechanical behavior of multilayered systems,” Thin Solid Films 348, 215–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rafin, B.

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

Shen, Z.

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siekhaus, W. J.

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, and B. Mcintyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1987).

Staggs, M. C.

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Feit, and T. V. Pistor, “Light intensification modeling of coating inclusions irradiated at 351 and 1053  nm,” Appl. Opt. 47, C162–C166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Feit, and T. V. Pistor, “Laser intensification by spherical inclusions embedded within multilayer coatings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1594–1601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Génin, and T. V. Pistor, “Electric-field enhancement by nodular defects in multilayer coatings irradiated at normal and 45° incidence,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 41–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.

Wei, Z.

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yi, K.

Zhang, J.

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Shen, H. Jiao, J. Zhang, B. Ma, T. Ding, J. Lu, X. Wang, and Z. Wang, “Laser damage study of nodules in electron-beam-evaporated HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 50, C357–C363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

X. Cheng, J. Zhang, T. Ding, Z. Wei, H. Li, and Z. Wang, “The effect of an electric field on the thermomechanical damage of nodular defects in dielectric multilayer coatings irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, e80 (2013).
[CrossRef]

NBS Spec. Publ. (1)

B. Liao, D. J. Smith, and B. Mcintyre, “The formation and development of nodular defects in optical coatings,” NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 305–318 (1987).

Proc. SPIE (6)

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Siekhaus, and M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects on HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 234–242 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bodemann, N. Kaiser, M. Kozlowski, E. Pierce, and C. J. Stolz, “Comparison between 355  nm and 1064  nm damage of high grade dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, T. Ding, W. He, J. Zhang, H. Jiao, B. Ma, Z. Shen, and Z. Wang, “Using engineered nodules to study laser-induced damage in optical thin films with nanosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulingue, J. Dijon, B. Rafin, H. Leplan, and M. Ignat, “Generation of defects with diamond and silica particles inside high-reflection coatings influence on the laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 325–336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. DeFord and M. R. Kozlowski, “Modeling of electric-field enhancement at nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 455–472 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Génin, and T. V. Pistor, “Electric-field enhancement by nodular defects in multilayer coatings irradiated at normal and 45° incidence,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 41–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Poulinguea, M. Ignat, and J. Dijon, “The effects of particle pollution on the mechanical behavior of multilayered systems,” Thin Solid Films 348, 215–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top-view micrograph of the artificial nodules originating from 1.9 μm SiO 2 microspheres. (b) Cross-sectional micrograph of an abnormal nodule originating from two agglomerated SiO 2 microspheres.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Statistical ejection fluences of the artificial nodules that were prepared by electron beam evaporation process. The seeds were monodisperse SiO 2 microspheres and hafnium-coated SiO 2 microspheres.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparisons between simulated | E | 2 distributions and the damage morphologies of nodules prepared via electron beam evaporation. (a1)–(a3) FDTD-simulated S-polarized | E | 2 distributions for which white lines represent film stacks and the color scale is different for different nodules. (b1)–(b3) Damage morphologies of artificial nodules initiating from SiO 2 seeds. (c1)–(c3) Damage morphologies of artificial nodules initiating from hafnium-coated SiO 2 seeds.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Statistical ejection fluences of the symmetrical and asymmetrical nodules initiating from SiO 2 microspheres.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a1)–(a5) Top-view micrographs of asymmetrical nodules. (b1)–(b5) Cross-sectional micrographs of the corresponding asymmetrical nodules.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3D geometry of an asymmetrical nodule initiating from a 0.9 μm silica microsphere.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

FDTD simulated S-polarized | E | 2 distributions of the asymmetrical nodules, where white lines represent film stacks and the color scale is different for different nodules.

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