Abstract

Effects of ion energy on the optical, microstructure, and electrical properties of Ge films prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition were investigated. The absorption edge is found to shift toward a longer wavelength when the ion energy increases. 150 eV ion bombardment energy could help to reduce absorption in the infrared spectrum, elevating 2% of film transmittance. Diffraction intensity decreases with bombardment ion energy indicates that the crystallinity of Ge film is degenerated. Electrical property has been analyzed through Hall measurement. The resistivity of sample prepared with 300 eV ion energy drops substantially from 477 to 137 Ω cm, and it changes slowly with further increase of ion bombardment energy.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q.-C. Zhang, J. C. Kelly, and M. J. Kenny, “Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 47, 257–262 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).
  6. Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. K. Ray and K. Das, “Luminescence characteristics of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Opt. Mater. 27, 948–952 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Zhu and P. P. Ong, “Preparation and photoluminescence of thin films of Ge nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrices,” J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 13, 4075–4080 (2001).
  10. L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646–2650 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. K. E. Zawawi, N. R. Khalil, and M. A. Mahdy, “Impact of various irradiation photon energies and gamma doses on the optical properties of ZnSe nanostructure thin film,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 520–527 (2012).
  13. N. Chopra, A. Mansingh, and G. K. Chadha, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous V2O5-TeO2 blown films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 194–201 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Bhosle, A. Tiwari, and J. Narayan, “Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1–3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. The Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), Card No. , by International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA.

2012

I. K. E. Zawawi, N. R. Khalil, and M. A. Mahdy, “Impact of various irradiation photon energies and gamma doses on the optical properties of ZnSe nanostructure thin film,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 520–527 (2012).

2011

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

2010

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646–2650 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. Bhosle, A. Tiwari, and J. Narayan, “Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. K. Ray and K. Das, “Luminescence characteristics of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Opt. Mater. 27, 948–952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Zhu and P. P. Ong, “Preparation and photoluminescence of thin films of Ge nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrices,” J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 13, 4075–4080 (2001).

2000

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990

Q.-C. Zhang, J. C. Kelly, and M. J. Kenny, “Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 47, 257–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Chopra, A. Mansingh, and G. K. Chadha, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous V2O5-TeO2 blown films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 194–201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alves, E.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhatti, M. T.

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhosle, V.

V. Bhosle, A. Tiwari, and J. Narayan, “Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bostedt, C.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caldelas, P.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chadha, G. K.

N. Chopra, A. Mansingh, and G. K. Chadha, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous V2O5-TeO2 blown films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 194–201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. J.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

Chopra, N.

N. Chopra, A. Mansingh, and G. K. Chadha, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous V2O5-TeO2 blown films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 194–201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conde, O.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Das, K.

S. K. Ray and K. Das, “Luminescence characteristics of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Opt. Mater. 27, 948–952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franco, N.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, M. J. M.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Z.

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heske, C.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646–2650 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jie, Y. X.

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. C.

Q.-C. Zhang, J. C. Kelly, and M. J. Kenny, “Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 47, 257–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kenny, M. J.

Q.-C. Zhang, J. C. Kelly, and M. J. Kenny, “Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 47, 257–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, N. R.

I. K. E. Zawawi, N. R. Khalil, and M. A. Mahdy, “Impact of various irradiation photon energies and gamma doses on the optical properties of ZnSe nanostructure thin film,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 520–527 (2012).

Khan, A. F.

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leng, J.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

Li, Sh. X.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

Li, W.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Q.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X. Y.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

Liu, W. L.

Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahdy, M. A.

I. K. E. Zawawi, N. R. Khalil, and M. A. Mahdy, “Impact of various irradiation photon energies and gamma doses on the optical properties of ZnSe nanostructure thin film,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 520–527 (2012).

Mansingh, A.

N. Chopra, A. Mansingh, and G. K. Chadha, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous V2O5-TeO2 blown films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 194–201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Martinu, L.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mehmood, M.

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moller, T.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, T.

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, J.

V. Bhosle, A. Tiwari, and J. Narayan, “Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ong, P. P.

Y. Zhu and P. P. Ong, “Preparation and photoluminescence of thin films of Ge nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrices,” J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 13, 4075–4080 (2001).

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646–2650 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, A. R.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rana, A. M.

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S. K.

S. K. Ray and K. Das, “Luminescence characteristics of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Opt. Mater. 27, 948–952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rolo, A. G.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sobahan, K. M. A.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646–2650 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. X.

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Terminello, L. J.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A.

V. Bhosle, A. Tiwari, and J. Narayan, “Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turan, R.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Buuren, T.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Q.

Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. H.

Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willey, T. M.

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xue, W.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yerci, S.

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Zh. N.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zawawi, I. K. E.

I. K. E. Zawawi, N. R. Khalil, and M. A. Mahdy, “Impact of various irradiation photon energies and gamma doses on the optical properties of ZnSe nanostructure thin film,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 520–527 (2012).

Zhang, D. P.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.-C.

Q.-C. Zhang, J. C. Kelly, and M. J. Kenny, “Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 47, 257–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu and P. P. Ong, “Preparation and photoluminescence of thin films of Ge nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrices,” J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 13, 4075–4080 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Q. Wan, C. L. Lin, W. L. Liu, and T. H. Wang, “Structural and electrical characteristics of Ge nanoclusters embedded in Al2O3 gate dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4708–4710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, N. Franco, L. J. Terminello, C. Heske, and T. Moller, “Strong quantum-confinement effects in the conduction band of germanium nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4056–4058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhosle, A. Tiwari, and J. Narayan, “Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Leng, Zh. N. Yu, Y. Q. Li, D. P. Zhang, X. Y. Liao, and W. Xue, “Optical and electrical properties of Y2O3 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 5832–5836 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and M. T. Bhatti, “Effect of annealing on electrical resistivity of rf-magnetron sputtered nanostructured SnO2 thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 8562–8565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Khan, M. Mehmood, A. M. Rana, and T. Muhammad, “Effect of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured Ge thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2031–2037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chinese J. Lumin.

C. Li, J. Xu, T. Lin, W. Li, Sh. X. Li, and K. J. Chen, “Structural, electronic and optical properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous germanium films,” Chinese J. Lumin. 32, 1165–1170 (2011).

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

I. K. E. Zawawi, N. R. Khalil, and M. A. Mahdy, “Impact of various irradiation photon energies and gamma doses on the optical properties of ZnSe nanostructure thin film,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 520–527 (2012).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

N. Chopra, A. Mansingh, and G. K. Chadha, “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of amorphous V2O5-TeO2 blown films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126, 194–201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. He, J. Xu, W. Li, K. Chen, and D. Feng, “Crystallization and oxidation process of nc-Ge in a-SiO2 matrix from a-Si:H/a-Ge:H multilayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 1025–1028 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Mat.

Y. Zhu and P. P. Ong, “Preparation and photoluminescence of thin films of Ge nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrices,” J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 13, 4075–4080 (2001).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater Sci. Eng. B

Y. X. Jie, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, W. X. Sun, Z. X. Shen, and S. J. Chua, “Raman and photoluminescence properties of Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix,” Mater Sci. Eng. B 107, 8–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

Q.-C. Zhang, J. C. Kelly, and M. J. Kenny, “Germanium implanted with high dose oxygen and its optical properties,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 47, 257–262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

S. K. Ray and K. Das, “Luminescence characteristics of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Opt. Mater. 27, 948–952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Optical and structural properties of Fe2O3 thin films prepared by ion-beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 2646–2650 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

P. Caldelas, A. G. Rolo, M. J. M. Gomes, E. Alves, A. R. Ramos, O. Conde, S. Yerci, and R. Turan, “Raman and XRD studies of Ge nanocrystals in alumina films grown by RF-magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 82, 1466–1469 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

The Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), Card No. , by International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmittance property of samples prepared with different ion energy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resistivity of Ge films as a function of ion energy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittance property of samples with different ion energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index of samples prepared with different ion energy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

XRD patterns for Ge films.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Fundamental Fabrication Conditions of Ge Films

Equations (2)

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α=1tln(1T),
α=α0exp(hν/Ee),

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