Abstract

In this study, we propose binary mask (BIM) designs with single- and double-layer absorber stacks with high optical contrast at a wavelength of 13.5 nm for use in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and actinic defect inspection. The optimum thickness of the absorber stack was estimated using a method based on the transfer matrix. In the double-layer designs, [Ag/SnTe] has a minimum thickness of 32nm with almost 100% optical contrast compared to the TaN layer. In addition, a SnTe absorber layer was deposited using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The optical constant of the SnTe layer at 13.5 nm wavelength was determined using the density of the layer, which was obtained from x-ray reflectivity measurements. The reflectance of the SnTe single-layer absorber stack was measured in the EUV region and compared with the simulated reflectance by using the calculated optical constants. The results show that the new BIM designs for EUVL and actinic inspection can be helpful in reducing the geometric shadow effect compared to the TaN absorber layer with a thickness of 70nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Y. Kang, J. D. Lim, P. Peranantham, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Determination of optical constants of thin films in extreme ultraviolet wavelength region by an indirect optical method,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 38–43 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang and C. K. Hwangbo, “Absorber stack with transparent conductive oxide layer for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 58–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Y. Kang, M. K. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of hybrid attenuated phase-shift masks with indium-tin-oxide absorbers for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 53, 1638–1646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

2005

J. H. Peters, “Status of EUVL mask development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 5853, 297–307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Sugawara, A. Chiba, and I. Nishiyama, “Effect of incident angle of off-axis illumination on pattern printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2701–2705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Ahn, J.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Arnold, J.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).

Braat, J. J. M.

Burkhardt, M.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.-C.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, A.

M. Sugawara, A. Chiba, and I. Nishiyama, “Effect of incident angle of off-axis illumination on pattern printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2701–2705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.-K.

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T. C.

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.-C.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Colburn, M.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dauksher, W. J.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engelstad, R.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. S.-C.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, B. L.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haran, B. S.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horak, D.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hosoya, M.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-C.

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

H. Y. Kang, J. D. Lim, P. Peranantham, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Determination of optical constants of thin films in extreme ultraviolet wavelength region by an indirect optical method,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 38–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang and C. K. Hwangbo, “Absorber stack with transparent conductive oxide layer for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 58–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang, M. K. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of hybrid attenuated phase-shift masks with indium-tin-oxide absorbers for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 53, 1638–1646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. Y.

H. Y. Kang, J. D. Lim, P. Peranantham, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Determination of optical constants of thin films in extreme ultraviolet wavelength region by an indirect optical method,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 38–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang and C. K. Hwangbo, “Absorber stack with transparent conductive oxide layer for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 58–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang, M. K. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of hybrid attenuated phase-shift masks with indium-tin-oxide absorbers for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 53, 1638–1646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.-Y.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Kim, B. H.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Kim, C. Y.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Kim, M. K.

H. Y. Kang, M. K. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of hybrid attenuated phase-shift masks with indium-tin-oxide absorbers for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 53, 1638–1646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Kinoshita, T.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ko, F. H.

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. S.

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koay, C.-S.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N.-E.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Lee, S. Y.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Lim, J. D.

Lu, B.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maa, A.

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2013).

Mangat, P. J. S.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, G.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, H.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagarekawa, O.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, I.

M. Sugawara, A. Chiba, and I. Nishiyama, “Effect of incident angle of off-axis illumination on pattern printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2701–2705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, R.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okoroanyanwu, U.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.-S.

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

Park, S.

S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peranantham, P.

H. Y. Kang, J. D. Lim, P. Peranantham, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Determination of optical constants of thin films in extreme ultraviolet wavelength region by an indirect optical method,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 38–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. H.

J. H. Peters, “Status of EUVL mask development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 5853, 297–307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrillo, K.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pettibone, D.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, S.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Resnick, D. J.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakaya, N.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H.-S.

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shoki, T.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

Smith, K. H.

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoehrb, B.

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

M. Sugawara, A. Chiba, and I. Nishiyama, “Effect of incident angle of off-axis illumination on pattern printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2701–2705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tchikoulaeva, A.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Usui, Y.

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valdiviab, J.

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wallow, T.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wasson, J. R.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weisbrod, E. J.

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yana, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

H. Y. Kang, M. K. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of hybrid attenuated phase-shift masks with indium-tin-oxide absorbers for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 53, 1638–1646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, P. Peranantham, H. Y. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, “Design of binary masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with deep ultraviolet inspection by using a simple method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1305–1309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Kim, B. H. Kim, I.-Y. Kang, Y.-C. Chung, J. Ahn, S. Y. Lee, I.-S. Park, C. Y. Kim, and N.-E. Lee, “Study of a thin Al2O3/TaN absorber stack on Ru-capped multilayers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, S721–S725 (2006).

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

H. Y. Kang, S. Park, C. K. Hwangbo, H.-S. Seo, S.-S. Kim, and H.-K. Cho, “Optical performance of extreme ultraviolet lithography mask with an indium tin oxide absorber,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 3330–3333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

T. Shoki, T. Kinoshita, N. Sakaya, M. Hosoya, R. Ohkubo, Y. Usui, H. Kobayashi, and O. Nagarekawa, “Damage-free extreme ultraviolet mask with TaBN absorber,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3021–3026 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, A. Chiba, and I. Nishiyama, “Effect of incident angle of off-axis illumination on pattern printability in extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2701–2705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Chen, H. C. Cheng, T. S. Ko, F. H. Ko, and T. C. Chu, “High reflectance of reflective-type attenuated-phase-shifting masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography with high inspection contrast in deep ultraviolet regimes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3049–3052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Smith, J. R. Wasson, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, and D. J. Resnick, “Cr absorber etch process for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2906–2910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wasson, E. J. Weisbrod, B. Lu, P. J. S. Mangat, W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, J. Sohn, R. Engelstad, and D. Pettibone, “Extreme ultraviolet mask fabrication with high inspection contrast TaSiNx absorber stack,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3086–3090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Kang and C. K. Hwangbo, “Absorber stack with transparent conductive oxide layer for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 58–60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

O. Wood, C.-S. Koay, K. Petrillo, H. Mizuno, S. Raghunathan, J. Arnold, D. Horak, M. Burkhardt, G. McIntyre, Y. Deng, B. L. Fontaine, U. Okoroanyanwu, A. Tchikoulaeva, T. Wallow, J. H.-C. Chen, M. Colburn, S. S.-C. Fan, B. S. Haran, and Y. Yin, “Integration of EUV lithography in the fabrication of 22-nm node devices,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 727104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Peters, “Status of EUVL mask development in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 5853, 297–307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Yana, A. Maa, Y.-C. Huang, B. Stoehrb, and J. Valdiviab, “EUVL square mask patterning with TaN absorber,” Proc. SPIE 4889, 431–436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2013).

http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

http://www.thinfilmcenter.com/ .

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (2010) ( http://www.itrs.net ).

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a double-layer absorber stack.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Reflectance and (b) admittance of a SnTe single-layer absorber stack as a function of the SnTe thickness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) [Re(δ1)/Im(δ1)] of [Ag/TaN] double-layer absorber stack as a function of the TaN thickness and (b) 2D contour plot of reflectance of [Ag/TaN] double-layer absorber stack as a function of Ag and TaN layer thicknesses.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) [Re(δ1)/Im(δ1)] of [Ag/SnTe] double-layer absorber stack as a function of SnTe thickness and (b) 2D contour plot of the reflectance of the [Ag/SnTe] double-layer absorber stack as a function of the thicknesses of the Ag and SnTe layers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured and fitted XRR data for a SnTe film.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured and simulated reflectance spectrum for SnTe absorber stack with various thicknesses in EUV region.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured and simulated reflectances of SnTe layers as a function of thickness.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Constant of Absorber Materials at 13.5 nm Wavelength [18]

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of BIM Designs with Single- and Double-Layer Absorber Stacks for 100% Optical Contrast

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[BC]=[cosδ1iη1sinδ1iη1sinδ1cosδ1][1Y2],
δ1=2πλη1d1,
Y1=CB=iη1sinδ1+Y2cosδ1cosδ1+iY2η1sinδ1.
δ1=tan1[iη1(Y21)η12Y2].
Re(η1)Im(η1)=Re(tan1[iη1(Y21)η12Y2])Im(tan1[iη1(Y21)η12Y2]).

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