Abstract

An angle-independent color mirror and an infrared dichroic beam splitter were the subjects of a design contest held in conjunction with the 2013 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of the Optical Society of America. A total of 17 designers submitted 63 designs, 22 for Problem A and 41 for Problem B. The submissions were created through a wide spectrum of design approaches and optimization strategies. Michael Trubetskov and Weidong Shen won the first contest by submitting color mirror designs with a zero color difference (ΔE00) between normal incidence and all other incidence angles up to 60° as well as the thinnest design. Michael Trubetskov also won the second contest by submitting beam-splitter designs that met the required transmission while having the lowest mechanical coating stress and thinnest design. Fabien Lemarchand received the second-place finish for the beam-splitter design. The submitted designs are described and evaluated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. E. Perilloux and S. D. Vincent, “Chromatically invariant multilayer dielectric thin film coating,” U.S. Patent4,896,928 (30January1990).
  3. R. W. Phillips, “Optically variable films, pigments, and inks,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 98–109 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. E. Ennos, “Stresses developed in optical film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 5, 51–61 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. V. Tikhonravov, “Some theoretical aspects of thin-film optics and their applications,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5417–5426 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

2001 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

R. W. Phillips, “Optically variable films, pigments, and inks,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 98–109 (1990).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ennos, A. E.

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Perilloux, B. E.

B. E. Perilloux and S. D. Vincent, “Chromatically invariant multilayer dielectric thin film coating,” U.S. Patent4,896,928 (30January1990).

Phillips, R. W.

R. W. Phillips, “Optically variable films, pigments, and inks,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 98–109 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Vincent, S. D.

B. E. Perilloux and S. D. Vincent, “Chromatically invariant multilayer dielectric thin film coating,” U.S. Patent4,896,928 (30January1990).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. W. Phillips, “Optically variable films, pigments, and inks,” Proc. SPIE 1323, 98–109 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

B. E. Perilloux and S. D. Vincent, “Chromatically invariant multilayer dielectric thin film coating,” U.S. Patent4,896,928 (30January1990).

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Color requirements in CIELAB color space. Lightness, L*30; chroma, Cab*100; hue angle, 120°hab180°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral reflectance of example design from 0° to 60°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CIELAB coordinates of example design in Table 2 from 0° to 60°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Progression of ΔE00 of example design in Table 2 comparing CIELAB at normal incidence to CIELAB from 1° to 60°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral reflectance of a traditional, two-material, high-chroma, green mirror for 0° and 60° angle of incidence. ΔE00=20.64 for color difference between reflectance at 0° and 60°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral reflectance of a color constant, six-material, high-chroma, green mirror for 0° and 60° angle of incidence. ΔE00=00 for color difference between reflectance at 0° and 60°.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral reflectance for all 11 all-dielectric submitted designs from 0° to 60° every 10° incident angle. Designer for each listed in Table 4.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Reflectance variance for all eleven all-dielectric submitted designs over the incident angle range of 0°–60°, every 10°. Designer for each listed in Table 4.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral reflectance for all 11 metal–dielectric submitted designs from 0° to 60° every 10° incident angle. Designer for each listed in Table 6.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Reflectance variance for all 11 metal–dielectric submitted designs over the incident angle range of 0°–60°, every 10°. Designer for each is listed in Table 6.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Color difference changes for each submitted design versus incidence angle. ΔE00=2.0 is shown on both plots for comparison. The all-dielectric submissions are shown in the top plot, and the metal–dielectric submissions are shown in the bottom plot.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

CIELAB color coordinates for the submitted designs. C*=100 is shown across the hue angle range for clarity. The all-dielectric submissions are shown in the top plot and the metal–dielectric submissions are shown in the bottom plot.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Sketch of dichroic beam splitter to separate the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Example of a dichroic beam splitter design that meets the reflectance and transmittance requirements at 45°.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Spectral performance plots of the Process A winners: (a) Trubetskov; (b) Lemarchand-1; and (c) Lemarquis.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Layer structure plots for the first 10 Process A designs. The refractive index of a layer is displayed on the vertical scale and the layer physical thickness on the horizontal scale. Designs shown are (a) Trubetskov, (b) Lemarchand-1, (c) Lemarquis, (d) Lemarchand-2, (e) Sato, (f) Kudo-1, (g) Kudo-2, (h) Wu, (i) Southwell-1, and (j) Southwell-2. Circled in (b) is a layer structure that repeats and is common to all of the designs.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Spectral performance plots of the Process B winners: (a) Trubetskov; (b) Lemarchand-1; and (c) Lemarchand-2.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Layer structure plots for the first five Process B designs. The refractive index of a layer is displayed on the vertical scale and the layer physical thickness on the horizontal scale. Designs shown are (a) Trubetskov, (b) Lemarchand-1, (c) Lemarchand-2, (d) Southwell, and (e) Lemarchand-3. Circled in (a) are two-layer structures that appear more than once in this design. Circled in (d) is a layer structure that repeats and is common to all five designs in (a)–(e).

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Example of a dichroic beam-splitter design that meets the reflectance and transmittance requirements at 45°.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Layer structure plots for order suppression basic periods. The refractive index of a layer is displayed on the vertical scale and the layer physical thickness on the horizontal scale.

Tables (13)

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Table 1. Materials That Can Be Used in Problem A Design

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Table 2. Example Design, Listed from the Substrate, with a Maximum ΔE00 of 33.24

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Table 3. Designers Who Submitted All-Dielectric Designs for Design Problem A

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Table 4. Submitted All-Dielectric Designs and Their Color Difference Performancea

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Table 5. Designers Who Submitted Metal–Dielectric Designs for Design Problem A.

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Table 6. Submitted Metal–Dielectric Designs and Their Color Difference Performancea

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Table 7. Dichroic Beam Splitter Spectral Requirements for Average Polarization

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Table 8. Coating Material Properties for Problem Ba

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Table 9. Substrate Properties

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Table 10. Design Submissions

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Table 11. Process A Winners

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Table 12. Process B Winners

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Table 13. Some Basic Periods for Order Suppressiona

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s2(λ)=1N1i=1N(x(λ)ix¯(λ))2.
δ=3σA(1ν)tfE(Rd)2,
σA=k=1ntkσktf,
δ=δ1δ2.
δ=|δ1δ2|0.01waves at0.633μm
10.00δ10.00waves at0.633μm

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