Abstract

Specific coating processes and materials were investigated in the quest to develop multilayer coatings with greater tolerance to space radiation exposure. Ultraviolet reflection (UVR) and wide-band antireflection (AR) multilayer coatings were deposited on solar cell covers and test substrates and subsequently exposed to simulated space environments and also flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment-7 (MISSE-7) to determine their space environment stability. Functional solar cells integrated with these coatings underwent simulated UV and MISSE-7 low earth orbit flight exposure. The effects of UV, proton, and atomic oxygen exposure on coatings and on assembled solar cells as related to the implemented deposition processes and material compositions were small. The UVR/AR coatings protected flexible polymer substrate materials that are intended for future flexible multijunction cell arrays to be deployed from rolls. Progress was made toward developing stable and protective coatings for extended space-mission applications. Test results are presented.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. F. Pellicori and C. L. Martinez, “UV optical properties of thin film oxide layers deposited by different processes,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5559–5566 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.
  3. T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.
  4. J. Merrill, P. Hausgen, D. Senft, and P. Tiomak, “Current status of photovoltaic development at AFRL,” NASA Conference Proceedings (NASA, 2005), p. 213431.
  5. R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.
  6. A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).
  7. A. B. Cornfield and J. Diaz, “The 3-J solar cell: pathways for insertion into space power systems,” in 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2009), p. 000954.
  8. H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.
  9. M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.
  10. J. J. Setta, R. J. Scheller, and J. A. Marker, “Effects of UV solarization on the transmission of cerium-doped optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0970, 179 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Barrie, M. Meshishnek, P. D. Fuqua, and W. C. Rostel, “Simulated space environment exposure of optical coatings for spacecraft solar rejection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3150–3155 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).
  13. C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.
  14. C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).
  15. J. F. Ziegler and J. P. Biersack, www.srim.org .
  16. P. Jenkins, private communication, 2013.
  17. H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2007 (2)

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1988 (1)

J. J. Setta, R. J. Scheller, and J. A. Marker, “Effects of UV solarization on the transmission of cerium-doped optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0970, 179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, D. J.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Alaan, D. R.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

Anderson, A. D.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

Banks, B. A.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

Barrie, J. D.

J. D. Barrie, M. Meshishnek, P. D. Fuqua, and W. C. Rostel, “Simulated space environment exposure of optical coatings for spacecraft solar rejection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3150–3155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.

Bhusari, D.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Boca, A.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Cho, B.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Christoulakis, S.

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. T.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.

Chu, C.-T.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

Ciofalo, M.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Coleman, D.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Cornfeld, A. B.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Cornfield, A. B.

A. B. Cornfield and J. Diaz, “The 3-J solar cell: pathways for insertion into space power systems,” in 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2009), p. 000954.

Cotal, H. L.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

de Groh, K. K.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

Di Sarcina, I.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Diaz, J.

A. B. Cornfield and J. Diaz, “The 3-J solar cell: pathways for insertion into space power systems,” in 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2009), p. 000954.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Edmondson, K.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Edmondson, K. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Ermer, J. H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Fetzer, C. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Fuqua, P. D.

J. D. Barrie, M. Meshishnek, P. D. Fuqua, and W. C. Rostel, “Simulated space environment exposure of optical coatings for spacecraft solar rejection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3150–3155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

Garcia, A.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Graziano, H.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Haddad, M.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Haloua, A.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

Hausgen, P.

J. Merrill, P. Hausgen, D. Senft, and P. Tiomak, “Current status of photovoltaic development at AFRL,” NASA Conference Proceedings (NASA, 2005), p. 213431.

Hausgen, P. E.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

Howard, A. D.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

Imka, E. C.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

Jenkins, P.

P. Jenkins, private communication, 2013.

Karam, N. H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Karem, N. H.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Katsaurakis, N.

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

King, R. R.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Kinsey, G. S.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Kiriakidis, G.

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitsopoulos, T.

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korostyshevsky, A.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Krut, D. D.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Kurtz, S.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Law, D.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Li, J.

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Luisa Grilli, M.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Marker, J. A.

J. J. Setta, R. J. Scheller, and J. A. Marker, “Effects of UV solarization on the transmission of cerium-doped optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0970, 179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C. L.

Menchini, F.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Merrill, J.

J. Merrill, P. Hausgen, D. Senft, and P. Tiomak, “Current status of photovoltaic development at AFRL,” NASA Conference Proceedings (NASA, 2005), p. 213431.

Meshishnek, M.

J. D. Barrie, M. Meshishnek, P. D. Fuqua, and W. C. Rostel, “Simulated space environment exposure of optical coatings for spacecraft solar rejection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3150–3155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Meshishnek, M. J.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

Mesropian, S.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Missirian, S.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Mitchell, G. G.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

Panetta, C. J.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.

Pellicori, S. F.

Piegari, A.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Rostel, W. C.

Sahlstrom, T. D.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

Scaglione, S.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Scheller, R. J.

J. J. Setta, R. J. Scheller, and J. A. Marker, “Effects of UV solarization on the transmission of cerium-doped optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0970, 179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Senft, D.

J. Merrill, P. Hausgen, D. Senft, and P. Tiomak, “Current status of photovoltaic development at AFRL,” NASA Conference Proceedings (NASA, 2005), p. 213431.

Setta, J. J.

J. J. Setta, R. J. Scheller, and J. A. Marker, “Effects of UV solarization on the transmission of cerium-doped optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0970, 179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sharps, P. R.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Sherif, R. A.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

Snyder, N. A.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

Stan, M.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Suchea, M.

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sytchkova, A.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Tiomak, P.

J. Merrill, P. Hausgen, D. Senft, and P. Tiomak, “Current status of photovoltaic development at AFRL,” NASA Conference Proceedings (NASA, 2005), p. 213431.

Vance Ley, A.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Varghese, T.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

Wilt, D. M.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

Yen, J.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Yi, D.-Q.

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. T.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

Yoon, H.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

Yu, Z.-M.

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.-M.

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zioa, L.-R.

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zola, D.

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. J. Setta, R. J. Scheller, and J. A. Marker, “Effects of UV solarization on the transmission of cerium-doped optical glasses,” Proc. SPIE 0970, 179 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

H.-M. Zhou, D.-Q. Yi, Z.-M. Yu, L.-R. Zioa, and J. Li, “Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films and the study of their microstructure, electrical and optical properties,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6909–6914 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsaurakis, T. Kitsopoulos, and G. Kiriakidis, “Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 515, 6562–6566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

I. Di Sarcina, M. Luisa Grilli, F. Menchini, A. Piegari, S. Scaglione, A. Sytchkova, and D. Zola, “Behavior of optical thin-film materials and coatings under proton irradiation,” Appl. Opt.53, A314–A320 (2013).

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, C. T. Chu, and D. R. Alaan, “Lessons learned from optics flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment,” presented at the OIC conference, Whistler, Canada, June2013.

C. J. Panetta, P. D. Fuqua, J. D. Barrie, D. R. Alaan, C.-T. Chu, and M. J. Meshishnek, “Characterization of optical samples flown on MISSE-7,” internal report (The Aerospace Corporation, 2012).

J. F. Ziegler and J. P. Biersack, www.srim.org .

P. Jenkins, private communication, 2013.

G. T. Yi, K. K. de Groh, B. A. Banks, A. Haloua, E. C. Imka, and G. G. Mitchell, “Overview of the MISSE 7 polymers and zenith polymers experiments after 1.5 years of space exposure,” , March2013.

T. D. Sahlstrom, P. E. Hausgen, D. M. Wilt, A. D. Howard, A. D. Anderson, and N. A. Snyder, “Space flight experiment: advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior,” in 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 002610–002615.

J. Merrill, P. Hausgen, D. Senft, and P. Tiomak, “Current status of photovoltaic development at AFRL,” NASA Conference Proceedings (NASA, 2005), p. 213431.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, R. A. Sherif, K. M. Edmondson, S. Kurtz, G. S. Kinsey, H. L. Cotal, D. D. Krut, J. H. Ermer, and N. H. Karam, “Metamorphic III-V materials, sublattice disorder, and multijunction solar cell approaches with over 37% efficiency,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, June7–11, 2004.

A. B. Cornfeld, M. Stan, T. Varghese, J. Diaz, A. Vance Ley, B. Cho, A. Korostyshevsky, D. J. Aiken, and P. R. Sharps, “Development of a large area inverted metamorphic multi-junction (IMM) highly efficient AM0 solar cell,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008).

A. B. Cornfield and J. Diaz, “The 3-J solar cell: pathways for insertion into space power systems,” in 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2009), p. 000954.

H. Yoon, M. Haddad, S. Mesropian, J. Yen, K. Edmondson, D. Law, R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, and N. H. Karem, “Progress of inverted metamorphic III–V solar cell development at Spectrolab,” in 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2008), pp. 1–6.

M. Ciofalo, D. Coleman, A. Garcia, H. Graziano, S. Liu, M. Meshishnek, and S. Missirian, “Results from 10 year low energy proton radiation testing of GPS coverglass,” presented at the Space Power Workshop, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, April2005.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (21)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical constants for Ta 2 O 5 produced with high-energy versus low-energy deposition processes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modeled (solid) and measured (dots) transmittance for our extended UVR/AR design composed of Ta 2 O 5 and SiO 2 on fused silica.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittances of fused silica exposed to mid- and high-energy protons.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Changes in n of LIMA deposited with E-beam IAD on silicon after proton exposure.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Changes in k of LIMA deposited with E-beam IAD on silicon after proton exposure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Changes in n of SiO 2 deposited with PDCMS on silicon after proton exposure.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Changes in k of SiO 2 deposited with PDCMS on silicon after proton exposure.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Changes in n of Ta 2 O 5 deposited with E-beam IAD on silicon after proton exposure.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Changes in k of Ta 2 O 5 deposited with E-beam IAD on silicon after proton exposure.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Changes in n of LaTiO 3 deposited with PIAD on silicon after proton exposure tests.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Changes in k of LaTiO 3 deposited with PIAD on silicon after proton exposure tests.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Changes in n of ZrO 2 deposited with PDCMS on silicon after proton exposure tests.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Changes in k of ZrO 2 deposited with PDCMS on silicon after proton exposure tests.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Transmittance loss of UVR/AR coatings made with two different deposition processes after simulated GPS exposure.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Transmittances of a UVR/AR coated polymer substrate before and after exposure to atomic oxygen.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Ratio of power outputs before and after simulated extraterrestrial solar exposure.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Results of solar exposure after 18 months in orbit on board MISSE-7. No changes were produced.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Transmittance of annealed 10 nm thick ITO versus 40 nm thick AZO on fused silica.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Index of AZO layer before and after proton irradiation.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Extinction coefficient of AZO layer before and after proton irradiation.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Transmittance of an AZO layer on fused silica before and after proton irradiation.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Modeled Orbital Space Energetic Environments and MISSE-7 Exposure [13]

Tables Icon

Table 2. Test Matrix Showing Coating Type, Substrates, and Tests Performed

Tables Icon

Table 3. Materials and Processes Evaluated for Radiation Resistance

Tables Icon

Table 4. Simulated GPS Orbit 10-year Proton Radiation Exposure Spectrum (d)

Tables Icon

Table 5. Summary Results of Proton Irradiation

Tables Icon

Table 6. Summary of Results after Atomic Oxygen Test

Tables Icon

Table 7. Results of Atomic Oxygen Exposure on the Transmission of AZO Coated Substrates

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

air / ( HL ) 8 / glass ,

Metrics