Abstract

Standard antireflective coatings applied to hard substrates like sapphire suffer from poor abrasion resistance. Silica is used as low refractive index layer in many multilayer systems although it has a lower hardness than the substrate. In this work an attempt was made to enhance the hardness by the addition of alumina. Magnetron sputtering was used in two different ways because it delivers dense coatings with high durability. Nanoindention hardness measurements of mixed alumina–silica films are presented in comparison to haze measurements after a sand trickling test. The hardness of silica is unexpectedly lowered by the addition of small amounts of alumina. Two different stacks were coated in which the low refractive index layers were sputtered as pure material and material mixtures. The thickness loss results after an oscillation abrasion test are presented.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Gervais, “Aluminium oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–775.
  2. M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. http://www.noscratch.eu .
  4. S. Bruns, S. Montzka, W. Reimann, and M. Vergöhl, “Comparison of abrasive tests for transparent optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 532, 73–78 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Skogsmo, M. Halvarsson, and S. Vuorinen, “Microstructural study of the κ–Al2O3 → α–Al2O3 transformation in CVD κ–Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 54–55, 186–192 (1992).
  6. S. Vuorinen and L. Karlsson, “Phase transformation in chemically vapour-deposited κ-alumina,” Thin Solid Films 214, 132–143 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Fietzke, K. Goedicke, and W. Hempel, “The deposition of hard crystalline Al2O3 layers by means of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 86–87, 657–663 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kohara, H. Tamagaki, Y. Ikari, and H. Fujii, “Deposition of α–Al2O3 hard coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 166–171 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Wallin, T. I. Selinder, M. Elfwing, and U. Helmersson, “Synthesis of α–Al2O3 thin films using reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering,” Europhys. Lett. 82, 36002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Zywitzki, G. Hoetzsch, F. Fietzke, and K. Goedicke, “Effect of the substrate temperature on the structure and properties of Al2O3, layers reactively deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 82, 169–175 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, and C. Piñero, “Relation of hardness and oxygen flow of Al2O3 coatings deposited by reactive bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 494, 255–262 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, R. W. J. Chia, M.-S. Wong, and A. Matthews, “Very-high-rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 96, 262–266 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. Beck and G. Reiners, “Dielectric reference coatings for the evaluation of thin film characterization techniques,” Thin Solid Films 270, 85–90 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. M. Arnold and B. E. Cole, “Ion beam sputter deposition of low loss Al2O3 films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 165, 1–9 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Bruns and M. Vergöhl, “Optical and thin film properties of mixed oxides deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680N (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Rademacher, T. Zickenrott, and M. Vergöhl, “Sputtering of dielectric single layers by metallic mode reactive sputtering and conventional reactive sputtering from cylindrical cathodes in a sputter-up configuration,” Thin Solid Films 532, 98–105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Sellmeier, “Zur Erklärung der abnormen Farbenfolge im Spectrum einiger Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 143, 272–282 (2013).
  24. K. Kopitzki, Einführung in die Festkörperphysik (Teubner, 1993).

2013 (3)

S. Bruns, S. Montzka, W. Reimann, and M. Vergöhl, “Comparison of abrasive tests for transparent optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 532, 73–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, T. Zickenrott, and M. Vergöhl, “Sputtering of dielectric single layers by metallic mode reactive sputtering and conventional reactive sputtering from cylindrical cathodes in a sputter-up configuration,” Thin Solid Films 532, 98–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Sellmeier, “Zur Erklärung der abnormen Farbenfolge im Spectrum einiger Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 143, 272–282 (2013).

2012 (1)

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Bruns and M. Vergöhl, “Optical and thin film properties of mixed oxides deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680N (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Wallin, T. I. Selinder, M. Elfwing, and U. Helmersson, “Synthesis of α–Al2O3 thin films using reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering,” Europhys. Lett. 82, 36002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, and C. Piñero, “Relation of hardness and oxygen flow of Al2O3 coatings deposited by reactive bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 494, 255–262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Kohara, H. Tamagaki, Y. Ikari, and H. Fujii, “Deposition of α–Al2O3 hard coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 166–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, R. W. J. Chia, M.-S. Wong, and A. Matthews, “Very-high-rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 96, 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. Fietzke, K. Goedicke, and W. Hempel, “The deposition of hard crystalline Al2O3 layers by means of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 86–87, 657–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Zywitzki, G. Hoetzsch, F. Fietzke, and K. Goedicke, “Effect of the substrate temperature on the structure and properties of Al2O3, layers reactively deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 82, 169–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

U. Beck and G. Reiners, “Dielectric reference coatings for the evaluation of thin film characterization techniques,” Thin Solid Films 270, 85–90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

J. Skogsmo, M. Halvarsson, and S. Vuorinen, “Microstructural study of the κ–Al2O3 → α–Al2O3 transformation in CVD κ–Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 54–55, 186–192 (1992).

S. Vuorinen and L. Karlsson, “Phase transformation in chemically vapour-deposited κ-alumina,” Thin Solid Films 214, 132–143 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. M. Arnold and B. E. Cole, “Ion beam sputter deposition of low loss Al2O3 films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 165, 1–9 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S. M.

S. M. Arnold and B. E. Cole, “Ion beam sputter deposition of low loss Al2O3 films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 165, 1–9 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beck, U.

U. Beck and G. Reiners, “Dielectric reference coatings for the evaluation of thin film characterization techniques,” Thin Solid Films 270, 85–90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birkedal, H.

M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bobzin, K.

K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, and C. Piñero, “Relation of hardness and oxygen flow of Al2O3 coatings deposited by reactive bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 494, 255–262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bøttiger, J.

M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, G.

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, S.

S. Bruns, S. Montzka, W. Reimann, and M. Vergöhl, “Comparison of abrasive tests for transparent optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 532, 73–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bruns and M. Vergöhl, “Optical and thin film properties of mixed oxides deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chevallier, J.

M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chia, R. W. J.

J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, R. W. J. Chia, M.-S. Wong, and A. Matthews, “Very-high-rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 96, 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

S. M. Arnold and B. E. Cole, “Ion beam sputter deposition of low loss Al2O3 films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 165, 1–9 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, R.

R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elfwing, M.

E. Wallin, T. I. Selinder, M. Elfwing, and U. Helmersson, “Synthesis of α–Al2O3 thin films using reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering,” Europhys. Lett. 82, 36002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erkens, G.

R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fietzke, F.

F. Fietzke, K. Goedicke, and W. Hempel, “The deposition of hard crystalline Al2O3 layers by means of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 86–87, 657–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Zywitzki, G. Hoetzsch, F. Fietzke, and K. Goedicke, “Effect of the substrate temperature on the structure and properties of Al2O3, layers reactively deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 82, 169–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, B.

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

T. Kohara, H. Tamagaki, Y. Ikari, and H. Fujii, “Deposition of α–Al2O3 hard coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 166–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gervais, F.

F. Gervais, “Aluminium oxide (Al2O3),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–775.

Goedicke, K.

F. Fietzke, K. Goedicke, and W. Hempel, “The deposition of hard crystalline Al2O3 layers by means of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 86–87, 657–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Zywitzki, G. Hoetzsch, F. Fietzke, and K. Goedicke, “Effect of the substrate temperature on the structure and properties of Al2O3, layers reactively deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 82, 169–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Halvarsson, M.

J. Skogsmo, M. Halvarsson, and S. Vuorinen, “Microstructural study of the κ–Al2O3 → α–Al2O3 transformation in CVD κ–Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 54–55, 186–192 (1992).

Helmersson, U.

E. Wallin, T. I. Selinder, M. Elfwing, and U. Helmersson, “Synthesis of α–Al2O3 thin films using reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering,” Europhys. Lett. 82, 36002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, W.

F. Fietzke, K. Goedicke, and W. Hempel, “The deposition of hard crystalline Al2O3 layers by means of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 86–87, 657–663 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoetzsch, G.

O. Zywitzki, G. Hoetzsch, F. Fietzke, and K. Goedicke, “Effect of the substrate temperature on the structure and properties of Al2O3, layers reactively deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 82, 169–175 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, Y.

T. Kohara, H. Tamagaki, Y. Ikari, and H. Fujii, “Deposition of α–Al2O3 hard coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 166–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, L.

S. Vuorinen and L. Karlsson, “Phase transformation in chemically vapour-deposited κ-alumina,” Thin Solid Films 214, 132–143 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhoff, V.

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kohara, T.

T. Kohara, H. Tamagaki, Y. Ikari, and H. Fujii, “Deposition of α–Al2O3 hard coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 166–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kopitzki, K.

K. Kopitzki, Einführung in die Festkörperphysik (Teubner, 1993).

Leyendecker, T.

R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lugscheider, E.

K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, and C. Piñero, “Relation of hardness and oxygen flow of Al2O3 coatings deposited by reactive bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 494, 255–262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maes, M.

K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, and C. Piñero, “Relation of hardness and oxygen flow of Al2O3 coatings deposited by reactive bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 494, 255–262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, A.

J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, R. W. J. Chia, M.-S. Wong, and A. Matthews, “Very-high-rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 96, 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milde, F.

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Montzka, S.

S. Bruns, S. Montzka, W. Reimann, and M. Vergöhl, “Comparison of abrasive tests for transparent optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 532, 73–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Neuschütz, D.

R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, W. C.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piñero, C.

K. Bobzin, E. Lugscheider, M. Maes, and C. Piñero, “Relation of hardness and oxygen flow of Al2O3 coatings deposited by reactive bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 494, 255–262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pistner, J.

M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rademacher, D.

D. Rademacher, T. Zickenrott, and M. Vergöhl, “Sputtering of dielectric single layers by metallic mode reactive sputtering and conventional reactive sputtering from cylindrical cathodes in a sputter-up configuration,” Thin Solid Films 532, 98–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, K.

R. Cremer, K. Reichert, D. Neuschütz, G. Erkens, and T. Leyendecker, “Sputter deposition of crystalline alumina coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164, 157–163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, W.

S. Bruns, S. Montzka, W. Reimann, and M. Vergöhl, “Comparison of abrasive tests for transparent optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 532, 73–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reiners, G.

U. Beck and G. Reiners, “Dielectric reference coatings for the evaluation of thin film characterization techniques,” Thin Solid Films 270, 85–90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reschke, J.

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, M.

M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J. M.

J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, R. W. J. Chia, M.-S. Wong, and A. Matthews, “Very-high-rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 96, 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, S.

S. Schiller, K. Goedicke, J. Reschke, V. Kirchhoff, S. Schneider, and F. Milde, “Pulsed magnetron sputter technology,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 61, 331–337 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Selinder, T. I.

E. Wallin, T. I. Selinder, M. Elfwing, and U. Helmersson, “Synthesis of α–Al2O3 thin films using reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering,” Europhys. Lett. 82, 36002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sellmeier, W.

W. Sellmeier, “Zur Erklärung der abnormen Farbenfolge im Spectrum einiger Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 143, 272–282 (2013).

Sillassen, M.

M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skogsmo, J.

J. Skogsmo, M. Halvarsson, and S. Vuorinen, “Microstructural study of the κ–Al2O3 → α–Al2O3 transformation in CVD κ–Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 54–55, 186–192 (1992).

Sproul, W. D.

J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, R. W. J. Chia, M.-S. Wong, and A. Matthews, “Very-high-rate reactive sputtering of alumina hard coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 96, 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sridharan, M.

M. Sridharan, M. Sillassen, J. Bøttiger, J. Chevallier, and H. Birkedal, “Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered Al2O3 films and their hardness,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 202, 920–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szczyrbowski, J.

M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamagaki, H.

T. Kohara, H. Tamagaki, Y. Ikari, and H. Fujii, “Deposition of α–Al2O3 hard coatings by reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 166–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vergöhl, M.

S. Bruns, S. Montzka, W. Reimann, and M. Vergöhl, “Comparison of abrasive tests for transparent optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 532, 73–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, T. Zickenrott, and M. Vergöhl, “Sputtering of dielectric single layers by metallic mode reactive sputtering and conventional reactive sputtering from cylindrical cathodes in a sputter-up configuration,” Thin Solid Films 532, 98–105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, O. Werner, and T. Wallendorf, “High rate deposition of mixed oxides by controlled reactive magnetron-sputtering from metallic targets,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4122–4126 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rademacher, G. Bräuer, M. Vergöhl, B. Fritz, and T. Zickenrott, “New sputtering concept for optical precision coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680O (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bruns and M. Vergöhl, “Optical and thin film properties of mixed oxides deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81680N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vuorinen, S.

J. Skogsmo, M. Halvarsson, and S. Vuorinen, “Microstructural study of the κ–Al2O3 → α–Al2O3 transformation in CVD κ–Al2O3,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 54–55, 186–192 (1992).

S. Vuorinen and L. Karlsson, “Phase transformation in chemically vapour-deposited κ-alumina,” Thin Solid Films 214, 132–143 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wallendorf, T.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Ruske, G. Bräuer, J. Pistner, J. Szczyrbowski, and M. Weigert, “Properties of SiO2 and Si3N4 layers deposited by MF twin magnetron sputtering using different target materials,” Thin Solid Films 351, 158–163 (1999).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sputter system: Balzers-Pfeiffer PLS 580 with three different deposition stations in the rotating drum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive index measured on backside matted sapphire plotted against alumina content in silica films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nanoindention hardness plotted against alumina content in silica films.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Haze increase after the sand trickling test plotted against alumina content in silica films.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Nanoindention hardness and haze increase after the sand trickling test of alumina–silica mixtures deposited on the EOSS. The fraction values were calculated by the power ratio of the sputter sources.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Five-layer stacks for abrasion resistance characterization with (a) a silica–alumina mixture and (b) with silica as a low refractive index material.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflectance of five-layer stacks as deposited on the PLS 580 and after the oscillating abrasion test.

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