Abstract

Research was undertaken to investigate the electrochromic and optical properties of tungsten oxide (WO3) films deposited by introducing hydrogen with a direct current (DC) and pulsed DC sputtering. The results show that WO3 films have optimum electrochromic properties at a hydrogen flow of 4 and 3 sccm for DC and pulsed DC, respectively. In the Raman spectra, the peak intensity increased with the increase of hydrogen flow at both 770cm1 and 950cm1 peaks, which resulted in bonds of W6+-O and W+6=O, respectively. Simultaneously, the transmittance (ΔT550nm) variations were 65.6% and 64.4%, and the average transmittance (ΔT400500nm) variations were 56.7% and 56.4% for DC and pulsed DC, respectively. The bleached/colored ability of the cyclic voltammograms (CVs) was DC>pulsedDC, and the resistances of AC impedance were pulsedDC>DC.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. K. Deb, “A novel electrophotographic system,” Appl. Opt. 3, 192–195 (1969).
  2. C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials (Elsevier, 1995).
  3. F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).
  4. J. M. Berak and M. J. Sienko, “Effect of oxygen-deficiency on electrical transport properties of tungsten trioxide crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 2, 109–133 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Babinec, “A quartz crystal microbalance analysis of ion insertion into WO3,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 25, 269–271 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, and C. H. Chen, “Investigation of optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide deposited with horizontal DC and DC pulse magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 045503 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. D. Lee, “Preparation and electrochromic properties of WO3 coating deposited by the sol-gel method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57, 21–24 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Munro, S. Kraner, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 673–678 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Jackson, “Auto industry embraces optical technologies,” Opt. Photon. News 11, 30–35 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, and P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–197 (1975).
  12. S. H. Lee, M. Hyeonsik, and K. D. Satyen, “Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3,” Electrochemistry 44, 3111–3115 (1999).
  13. M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. S. Rao, B. R. Kanth, G. S. Devi, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1466–1472 (2011).
  15. C. P. Smyth, Dielectric Behavior and Structure, 1st ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).
  16. C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).
  17. H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. G. Hutchins, N. A. Kamel, and A. Hady, “Effect of oxygen content on the electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films with Li+ insertion,” Vacuum 51, 433–439 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Ezhivalavan and T. Y. Tseng, “Electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on Cu,” Thin Solid Films 360, 268–273 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. C. Chen, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods,” Appl. Opt. 47, C284–C287 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, and C. H. Chen, “Investigation of optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide deposited with horizontal DC and DC pulse magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 045503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. S. Rao, B. R. Kanth, G. S. Devi, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1466–1472 (2011).

J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

2001 (1)

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Ezhivalavan and T. Y. Tseng, “Electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on Cu,” Thin Solid Films 360, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Jackson, “Auto industry embraces optical technologies,” Opt. Photon. News 11, 30–35 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. D. Lee, “Preparation and electrochromic properties of WO3 coating deposited by the sol-gel method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57, 21–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, M. Hyeonsik, and K. D. Satyen, “Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3,” Electrochemistry 44, 3111–3115 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. G. Hutchins, N. A. Kamel, and A. Hady, “Effect of oxygen content on the electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films with Li+ insertion,” Vacuum 51, 433–439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Munro, S. Kraner, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 673–678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. J. Babinec, “A quartz crystal microbalance analysis of ion insertion into WO3,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 25, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, and P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–197 (1975).

1970 (1)

J. M. Berak and M. J. Sienko, “Effect of oxygen-deficiency on electrical transport properties of tungsten trioxide crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 2, 109–133 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. K. Deb, “A novel electrophotographic system,” Appl. Opt. 3, 192–195 (1969).

Ashrit, P. V.

P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babinec, S. J.

S. J. Babinec, “A quartz crystal microbalance analysis of ion insertion into WO3,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 25, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bader, G.

P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Benaissa, K.

P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berak, J. M.

J. M. Berak and M. J. Sienko, “Effect of oxygen-deficiency on electrical transport properties of tungsten trioxide crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 2, 109–133 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Brashev, M. A.

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

Brigouleix, C.

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Bruneton, E.

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Campet, G.

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Chen, C. H.

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, and C. H. Chen, “Investigation of optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide deposited with horizontal DC and DC pulse magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 045503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, and C. H. Chen, “Investigation of optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide deposited with horizontal DC and DC pulse magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 045503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods,” Appl. Opt. 47, C284–C287 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crandall, R. S.

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, and P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–197 (1975).

Deb, S. K.

S. K. Deb, “A novel electrophotographic system,” Appl. Opt. 3, 192–195 (1969).

Devi, G. S.

K. S. Rao, B. R. Kanth, G. S. Devi, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1466–1472 (2011).

Ezhivalavan, S.

S. Ezhivalavan and T. Y. Tseng, “Electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on Cu,” Thin Solid Films 360, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faughnan, B. W.

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, and P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–197 (1975).

Gesheva, K.

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

Girouard, F. E.

P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials (Elsevier, 1995).

Gu, C. D.

J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hady, A.

M. G. Hutchins, N. A. Kamel, and A. Hady, “Effect of oxygen content on the electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films with Li+ insertion,” Vacuum 51, 433–439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamelmann, F.

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

Heinzmann, U.

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

Heyman, P. M.

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, and P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in tungsten (VI) oxide amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–197 (1975).

Huang, K. T.

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, M. G.

M. G. Hutchins, N. A. Kamel, and A. Hady, “Effect of oxygen content on the electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films with Li+ insertion,” Vacuum 51, 433–439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hyeonsik, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Hyeonsik, and K. D. Satyen, “Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3,” Electrochemistry 44, 3111–3115 (1999).

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, T.

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

Iwaku, M.

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, L.

L. Jackson, “Auto industry embraces optical technologies,” Opt. Photon. News 11, 30–35 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jan, D. J.

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, and C. H. Chen, “Investigation of optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide deposited with horizontal DC and DC pulse magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 045503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kamel, N. A.

M. G. Hutchins, N. A. Kamel, and A. Hady, “Effect of oxygen content on the electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films with Li+ insertion,” Vacuum 51, 433–439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanth, B. R.

K. S. Rao, B. R. Kanth, G. S. Devi, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1466–1472 (2011).

Kraner, S.

B. Munro, S. Kraner, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 673–678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krug, H.

B. Munro, S. Kraner, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 673–678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lee, K. D.

K. D. Lee, “Preparation and electrochromic properties of WO3 coating deposited by the sol-gel method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 57, 21–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Hyeonsik, and K. D. Satyen, “Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3,” Electrochemistry 44, 3111–3115 (1999).

Linz, T.

M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, M.

M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

K. S. Rao, B. R. Kanth, G. S. Devi, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1466–1472 (2011).

Muller, J.

M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munro, B.

B. Munro, S. Kraner, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 673–678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakase, K.

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nouhaut, G.

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Oyama, N.

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. S.

K. S. Rao, B. R. Kanth, G. S. Devi, and P. K. Mukhopadhyay, “Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1466–1472 (2011).

Ruske, M.

M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sabary, F.

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Satyen, K. D.

S. H. Lee, M. Hyeonsik, and K. D. Satyen, “Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3,” Electrochemistry 44, 3111–3115 (1999).

Seo, I.

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sienko, M. J.

J. M. Berak and M. J. Sienko, “Effect of oxygen-deficiency on electrical transport properties of tungsten trioxide crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 2, 109–133 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, C. P.

C. P. Smyth, Dielectric Behavior and Structure, 1st ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

Stowell, M.

M. Stowell, J. Muller, M. Ruske, M. Lutz, and T. Linz, “RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7654–7657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szekeres, A. M.

F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

Topart, P.

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Truong, V. V.

P. V. Ashrit, K. Benaissa, G. Bader, F. E. Girouard, and V. V. Truong, “Lithiation studies on some transition-metal oxides for an all-solid thin-film electrochromic system,” Solid State Ionics 59, 47–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, T. Y.

S. Ezhivalavan and T. Y. Tseng, “Electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on Cu,” Thin Solid Films 360, 268–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tu, J. P.

J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X. H.

J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yasukawa, H.

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zapp, P.

B. Munro, S. Kraner, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 673–678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. H. Xia, C. D. Gu, and J. P. Tu, “Electrochromic behavior of WO3 nanotree films prepared by hydrothermal oxidation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 2107–2112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electrochemistry (2)

S. H. Lee, M. Hyeonsik, and K. D. Satyen, “Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3,” Electrochemistry 44, 3111–3115 (1999).

C. Brigouleix, P. Topart, E. Bruneton, F. Sabary, G. Nouhaut, and G. Campet, “Roll-to-roll pulsed dc magnetron sputtering deposition of WO3 for electrochromic windows,” Electrochemistry 46, 1931–1936 (2001).

Electrochim. Acta (2)

H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, K. Nakase, H. Yasukawa, I. Seo, and N. Oyama, “Electrochromic display device of tungsten trioxide and Prussian Blue films using polymer gel electrolyte of methacrylate,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 227–232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, D. J. Jan, C. H. Chen, and K. T. Huang, “Bond and electrochromic properties of WO3 films deposited with horizontal DC, pulsed DC, and RF sputtering,” Electrochim. Acta 93, 307–313 (2013).
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F. Hamelmann, K. Gesheva, T. Ivanov, A. M. Szekeres, M. A. Brashev, and U. Heinzmann, “Optical and electrochromic characterization of multilayered mixed metal oxide thin films,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 393–396 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of magnetron sputtering with DC and pulsed DC plasma sources.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic drawing of an electrochromic device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sputtering rate of WO3 films deposited by different hydrogen flows and plasma sources.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index (n) of WO3 thin films deposited by different hydrogen flows and plasma sources at λ=550nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectra of WO3 films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering with different hydrogen flows of (a) 0 sccm, (b) 1 sccm, (c) 2 sccm, (d) 3 sccm, (e) 4 sccm, and (f) 5 sccm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Raman spectra of WO3 films deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with different hydrogen flows of (a) 0 sccm, (b) 1 sccm, (c) 2 sccm, (d) 3 sccm, (e) 4 sccm, and (f) 5 sccm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Raman peak area ratios of WO3 films deposited by DC and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with various hydrogen flows.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Visible transmission spectra of colored WO3 thin films with various hydrogen flows by DC magnetron sputtering.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Visible transmission spectra of colored WO3 thin films with various hydrogen flows by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Transmittance spectra of colored WO3 at λ=550nm with different hydrogen and plasma sources.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Transmittance spectra of colored WO3 at λ=400500nm with different hydrogen and plasma sources.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Transmittance spectra of WO3 thin films deposited by DC power with different hydrogen flows of (a) 0 sccm, (b) 1 sccm, (c) 2 sccm, (d) 3 sccm, (e) 4 sccm, and (f) 5 sccm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Transmittance spectra of WO3 thin films deposited by pulsed DC power with different hydrogen flows of (a) 0 sccm, (b) 1 sccm, (c) 2 sccm, (d) 3 sccm, (e) 4 sccm, and (f) 5 sccm.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Optical density of WO3 thin films deposited by different hydrogen flows at λ=550nm with different plasma sources.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Optical density of WO3 thin films deposited by different hydrogen flows at λ=400500nm with different plasma sources.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

CE at different hydrogen flows and plasma sources at λ=550nm.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

CE at different hydrogen flows and plasma sources at λ=400500nm.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Variation of CVs in WO3 films deposited with different plasma sources.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

AC impedance of the WO3 films (a) without hydrogen, and (b) with 4 sccm hydrogen for DC power.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

AC impedance of the WO3 films (a) without hydrogen, and (b) with 3 sccm hydrogen for pulsed DC power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. List of Deposition Conditions for WO3 Films

Tables Icon

Table 2. List of Raman Peak Area Ratios for WO3 Films

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

WO3+xe1+xM+MxWO3,
ΔOD=log(TbleachingTcoloring)=AcoloringAbleaching,
CE=η=ΔODQ,

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