Abstract

We show that the concentration of oxygen interstitials trapped in Sc2O3 films by ion beam sputtering from metal targets can be controlled by modifying deposition conditions. We have identified point defects in the form of oxygen interstitials that are present in Sc2O3 films, in significantly high concentrations, i.e., 1018cm3. These results show a correlation between the increase of oxygen interstitials and the increase in stress and optical absorption in the films. Sc2O3 films with the lowest stress and optical absorption loss at 1 μm wavelength were obtained when using a low oxygen partial pressure and low beam voltage.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, and C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium oxide coatings for high-power UV laser applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685–3688 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).
  4. L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Mende, S. Schrameyer, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, and L. Gallais, “Laser damage resistance of ion-beam sputtered Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1368–1376 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Krous, “Characterization of Scandium Oxide thin films for use in interference coatings for high-power lasers operating in the near-infrared,” M.S. thesis (Colorado State University, 2010).
  11. S. Stoll and A. Schweiger, “EasySpin, a comprehensive software package for spectral simulation and analysis in EPR,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 42–55 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Barklie and S. Wright, “Electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of defects in HfO2 and ZrO2 powders and films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 317–320 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kay, F. Parmigiani, and W. Parrish, “Effect of energetic neutralized noble gas ions on the structure of ion beam sputtered thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 44–51 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. A. Barybin and V. I. Shapovalov, “Nonisothermal chemical model of reactive sputtering,”J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054905 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Berg and T. Nyberg, “Fundamental understanding and modeling of reactive sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 476, 215–230 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

2013 (3)

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mende, S. Schrameyer, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, and L. Gallais, “Laser damage resistance of ion-beam sputtered Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1368–1376 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. C. Barklie and S. Wright, “Electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of defects in HfO2 and ZrO2 powders and films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. A. Barybin and V. I. Shapovalov, “Nonisothermal chemical model of reactive sputtering,”J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Stoll and A. Schweiger, “EasySpin, a comprehensive software package for spectral simulation and analysis in EPR,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 42–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Berg and T. Nyberg, “Fundamental understanding and modeling of reactive sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 476, 215–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

1987 (2)

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Kay, F. Parmigiani, and W. Parrish, “Effect of energetic neutralized noble gas ions on the structure of ion beam sputtered thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Alexandrovski, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barklie, R. C.

R. C. Barklie and S. Wright, “Electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of defects in HfO2 and ZrO2 powders and films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barybin, A. A.

A. A. Barybin and V. I. Shapovalov, “Nonisothermal chemical model of reactive sputtering,”J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berg, S.

S. Berg and T. Nyberg, “Fundamental understanding and modeling of reactive sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 476, 215–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, V. O.

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Ehlers, H.

Emmert, L.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, L. A.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. X.

G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flinn, P. A.

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Foster, A. S.

A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

Gallais, L.

Gardner, D. S.

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gejo, F. L.

A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

Gordon, R. G.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Hart, T. T.

He, H. B.

G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. X.

G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaichev, V. V.

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kay, E.

E. Kay, F. Parmigiani, and W. Parrish, “Effect of energetic neutralized noble gas ions on the structure of ion beam sputtered thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kholi, S.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kichai, V. N.

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krous, E.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krous, E. M.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Krous, “Characterization of Scandium Oxide thin films for use in interference coatings for high-power lasers operating in the near-infrared,” M.S. thesis (Colorado State University, 2010).

Langdon, B.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langston, P.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langston, P. F.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Liu, G. H.

G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lou, X. B.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Markosian, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markosyan, A.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

Markosyan, S.

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McCurdy, P. R.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mende, M.

Menoni, C.

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Menoni, C. S.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Molnar, R. J.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Nguyen, D. N.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

Nieminen, R. M.

A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

Nix, W. D.

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nyberg, T.

S. Berg and T. Nyberg, “Fundamental understanding and modeling of reactive sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 476, 215–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogloza, A.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, T.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Parmigiani, F.

E. Kay, F. Parmigiani, and W. Parrish, “Effect of energetic neutralized noble gas ions on the structure of ion beam sputtered thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, W.

E. Kay, F. Parmigiani, and W. Parrish, “Effect of energetic neutralized noble gas ions on the structure of ion beam sputtered thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D.

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

Reagan, B.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Rocca, J. J.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Route, R.

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

Saadat, O. I.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Schrameyer, S.

Schweiger, A.

S. Stoll and A. Schweiger, “EasySpin, a comprehensive software package for spectral simulation and analysis in EPR,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 42–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shapovalov, V. I.

A. A. Barybin and V. I. Shapovalov, “Nonisothermal chemical model of reactive sputtering,”J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shluger, A. L.

A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

Smirnova, T. P.

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, S.

S. Stoll and A. Schweiger, “EasySpin, a comprehensive software package for spectral simulation and analysis in EPR,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 42–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tollerud, J.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomasel, F.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. W.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Wernsing, K.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

R. C. Barklie and S. Wright, “Electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of defects in HfO2 and ZrO2 powders and films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, B.

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

Xu, Y.

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yakovkina, L. V.

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. W. Wang, O. I. Saadat, B. Xi, X. B. Lou, R. J. Molnar, T. Palacios, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of Sc2O3 for passivating AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 232109 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

P. A. Flinn, D. S. Gardner, and W. D. Nix, “Measurement and interpretation of stress in aluminum-based metallization as a function of thermal history,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 34, 689–699 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

L. V. Yakovkina, T. P. Smirnova, V. O. Borisov, V. N. Kichai, and V. V. Kaichev, “Synthesis and properties of dielectric (HfO2)(1-x) (Sc2O3) (x) films,” Inorg. Mater. 49, 172–178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. A. Barybin and V. I. Shapovalov, “Nonisothermal chemical model of reactive sputtering,”J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Markosyan, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, D. Patel, and C. Menoni, “Study of spontaneous and induced absorption in amorphous Ta2O5 and SiO2 dielectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113, 133104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Reson. (1)

S. Stoll and A. Schweiger, “EasySpin, a comprehensive software package for spectral simulation and analysis in EPR,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 42–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

E. Kay, F. Parmigiani, and W. Parrish, “Effect of energetic neutralized noble gas ions on the structure of ion beam sputtered thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. C. Barklie and S. Wright, “Electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of defects in HfO2 and ZrO2 powders and films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 317–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. S. Foster, F. L. Gejo, A. L. Shluger, and R. M. Nieminen, “Vacancy and interstitial defects in hafnia,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 174117 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (4)

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosian, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202(2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, P. F. Langston, E. Krous, D. Patel, L. Emmert, A. Markosyan, B. Reagan, K. Wernsing, Y. Xu, Z. Sun, R. Route, M. M. Fejer, J. J. Rocca, and W. Rudolph, “What role do defects play in the laser damage behavior of metal oxides?” Proc. SPIE 8530, 85300J (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

G. H. Liu, Y. X. Jin, H. B. He, and Z. X. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Berg and T. Nyberg, “Fundamental understanding and modeling of reactive sputtering processes,” Thin Solid Films 476, 215–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. M. Krous, “Characterization of Scandium Oxide thin films for use in interference coatings for high-power lasers operating in the near-infrared,” M.S. thesis (Colorado State University, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) X-ray diffraction spectra of amorphous Sc2O3 for films deposited as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The film obtained at 2 μTorr shows diffraction features of crystalline scandium, and was opaque. All other films instead showed diffraction peaks that are identified with the (222) and (440) peaks of cubic Sc2O3. (b) The FWHM of the (222) peak increases and the peak position decreases to smaller angles with oxygen partial pressure, indicating an increase in the lattice parameter due to increased strain.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Stress in Sc2O3 films with (a) variation in the beam voltage and (b) variation in the oxygen partial pressure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

EPR spectra for Sc2O3 films deposited at different oxygen partial pressures. A line shape analysis of the spectra is used to identify the defects and determine their density. An increase in the signal intensity correlates with a larger density of defects.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorptivity of amorphous Sc2O3 films deposited using (a) different oxygen partial pressures and (b) different beam voltages. The triangle symbols identify a set of samples grown without use of the assist source. Both sets of data show an increase in absorptivity with oxygen partial pressure. The increase in absorptivity correlates with the increase in the density of oxygen defects.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized absorptivity for Sc2O3 films at λ=1064nm and λ=514nm. The data were normalized to the value of the absorptivity at λ=1064nm for the film deposited at a beam voltage of 1250 V.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Defect Density Determined from EPR for Sc2O3 Deposited with Different Beam Voltage and Sc2O3 Deposited with Different Oxygen Partial Pressure

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