Abstract

This paper studies the preparation of a zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer deposited onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via RF sputtering, and the growth of ZnO/CNT composite via the hydrothermal method. The ZnO “thorns” have been successfully deposited on CNT “stems.” The research focuses on the ZnO seed layer with different sputtering times and annealing processes. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation showed that the length and amount of ZnO thorns decreased with increased sputtering time of the seed layer. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the ZnO crystalline structures improved after the seed layer, annealing at peaks of (100), (002), and (101). The results of Raman spectra showed that the ZnO seed layer deposited onto the CNTs, and the annealing, caused damage to the CNTs, reducing the IG/ID ratio from 0.9 to 0.5. Furthermore, the highest UV emission of thorn-like ZnO/CNTs occurred at a peak of 380 nm with seed layer deposition time of 2 min, after annealing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1482–1513 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. T. Thostenson, Z. F. Ren, and T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. 16, R829–R858 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Kim and W. Sigmund, “Zinc oxide nanowires on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2085–2087 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. D. Zhang, “Growth of ZnO nanowires on modified well-aligned carbon nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 17, 1036–1040 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Patterson, “The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56, 978–982 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Chakraborty, S. Dhara, and P. K. Giri, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on microstructure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 65–68 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

R. Chakraborty, S. Dhara, and P. K. Giri, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on microstructure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 65–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Zhang, “Growth of ZnO nanowires on modified well-aligned carbon nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 17, 1036–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. 16, R829–R858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kim and W. Sigmund, “Zinc oxide nanowires on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2085–2087 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. T. Thostenson, Z. F. Ren, and T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

L. Patterson, “The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56, 978–982 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Achour, A.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ait Aissa, K.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y. K.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barreau, N.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Byun, C.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G. Z.

Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cha, D. K.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, R.

R. Chakraborty, S. Dhara, and P. K. Giri, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on microstructure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 65–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. C.

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. Y.

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. J.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. G.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T. W.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. F. Ren, and T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. N.

A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dandeneau, C. S.

Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deb, S.

A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dhara, S.

R. Chakraborty, S. Dhara, and P. K. Giri, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on microstructure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 65–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Djouadi, M. A.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, S.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faulques, E.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giri, P. K.

R. Chakraborty, S. Dhara, and P. K. Giri, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on microstructure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 65–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z. N.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gun’koa, Y. K.

A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. S.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, X. L.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, D. S.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hng, H. H.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W. H.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. M.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C. S.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. Y.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Im, S.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irvin, G.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Janga, S. Y.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. C.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jo, S. M.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jouan, P. Y.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D. H.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. T.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kechouane, M.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim and W. Sigmund, “Zinc oxide nanowires on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2085–2087 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. J.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. H.

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. S.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Brizoual, L.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. S.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. I.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. P.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. H.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, S. K.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Massuyeau, F.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, B. B.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, T. H.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Musa, I.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, A.

A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, B. Y.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. S.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. K.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ouldhamadouche, N.

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Q. Y.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H. K.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, L.

L. Patterson, “The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56, 978–982 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. F.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. F. Ren, and T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruby, D. S.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, M.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D. S.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z. J.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shun, Y. A.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, W.

H. Kim and W. Sigmund, “Zinc oxide nanowires on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2085–2087 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thostenson, E. T.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. F. Ren, and T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. Z.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tse, K. Y.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Q.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. H.

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. 16, R829–R858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Q.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. J.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. B.

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. C.

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. C.

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, K. T.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. F.

Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. L.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. D.

W. D. Zhang, “Growth of ZnO nanowires on modified well-aligned carbon nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 17, 1036–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. H.

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Y.

Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, and G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Zhang, C. S. Dandeneau, X. Y. Zhou, and G. Z. Cao, “ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 21, 4087–4108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. K. Park, C. S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J. I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. 21, 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Kim and W. Sigmund, “Zinc oxide nanowires on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2085–2087 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wan, Q. H. Li, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wang, X. L. He, J. P. Li, and C. L. Lin, “Fabrication and ethanol sensing characteristics of ZnO nanowire gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3654–3656 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (2)

A. O’Connor, S. Deb, J. N. Coleman, and Y. K. Gun’koa, “Development of transparent, conducting composites by surface infiltration of nanotubes into commercial polymer films,” Carbon 47, 1983–1988 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Park, J. S. Kim, B. G. Choi, S. M. Jo, D. Y. Kim, W. H. Hong, and S. Y. Janga, “Sonochemical hybridization of carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles for the production of flexible transparent conducing films,” Carbon 48, 1325–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. T. Thostenson, Z. F. Ren, and T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanosci. (1)

R. Chakraborty, S. Dhara, and P. K. Giri, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on microstructure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10, 65–68 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

F. M. Huang, K. T. Yue, P. H. Tan, S. L. Zhang, Z. J. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and Z. N. Gu, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4022–4024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, K. Y. Tse, and H. H. Hng, “Comprehensive study of ZnO films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1597–1604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, T. H. Moon, W. Lee, J. M. Myoung, J. Y. Hwang, and D. S. Seo, “Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films for liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. 16, R829–R858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

X. Zhang, J. S. Lee, G. S. Lee, D. K. Cha, M. J. Kim, D. J. Yang, and S. K. Manohar, “Chemical synthesis of PEDOT nanotubes,” Macromolecules 39, 470–472 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

S. B. Yang, B. S. Kong, D. H. Jung, Y. K. Baek, C. S. Han, S. K. Oh, and H. T. Jung, “Recent advances in hybrids of carbon nanotube network films and nanomaterials for their potential applications as transparent conducting films,” Nanoscale 3, 1361–1373 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

W. C. Chang, Y. Y. Cheng, W. C. Yu, Y. C. Yao, C. H. Lee, and H. H. Ko, “Enhancing performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

W. D. Zhang, “Growth of ZnO nanowires on modified well-aligned carbon nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 17, 1036–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. Patterson, “The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination,” Phys. Rev. 56, 978–982 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Sensor. Actuat. B (1)

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. B 66, 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

N. Ouldhamadouche, A. Achour, I. Musa, K. Ait Aissa, F. Massuyeau, P. Y. Jouan, M. Kechouane, L. Le Brizoual, E. Faulques, N. Barreau, and M. A. Djouadi, “Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 520, 4816–4819 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the growth process of the thorn-like ZnO/CNT composites.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of ZnO-seed-layer/CNT surface morphology at different sputtering times: (a) 2 min, (b) 5 min, and (c) 10 min, without annealing, and (d) 2 min, (e) 5 min, (f) 10 min, with the annealing process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of thorn-like ZnO/CNT surface morphologies created using a hydrothermal process with different seed layer deposition times: (a) 2 min, (b) 5 min, and (c) 10 min without seed layer annealing, and (d) 2 min, (e) 5 min, and (f) 10 min, with seed layer annealing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average length of the ZnO thorns at the different sputtering times of the ZnO seed layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

XRD patterns of ZnO seed layer/CNTs with different deposition times, with (a), (b), and (c) without annealing, and (d), (e), and (f) with annealing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

XRD patterns of thorn-like ZnO/CNTs with different seed layer sputtering times, with (a), (b), and (c) without annealing, and (d), (e), and (f) with annealing.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Raman spectra of ZnO seed layers deposited on CNT surfaces using different sputtering times, where (a) is pure CNT (no seed layer), and (b), (c), and (d) without annealing, and (e), (f), and (g) with annealing.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Raman spectra of thorn-like ZnO/CNTs with different seed layer sputtering times, with (a), (b), and (c) without annealing, and (d), (e), and (f) with annealing.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO seed layers deposited on CNTs’ surface by different sputtering times, with (a), (b), and (c) without annealing, and (d), (e), and (f) with annealing.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

PL spectra of thorn-like ZnO/CNTs with different seed layer sputtering times, in which (a), (b), and (c) were without the annealing process, and (d), (e), and (f) were with the annealing process.

Equations (1)

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d=0.9λβcosθ,

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