Abstract

Ion-beam-sputtering (IBS) single-layer and multilayer coating designs for UV applications were examined after the deposition process as well as after a defined postdeposition treatment. High internal compressive film stress as well as moderate absorption losses in the UV spectral range were measured at the as-deposited thin films. Due to a controlled postdeposition treatment process, the absorption losses and the high compressive stress can be reduced significantly. We show that the remaining thin-film stress of SiO2 and HfO2 multilayer designs can be specifically manipulated by the parameters of the postdeposition treatment. Even zero and tensile stress can be achieved for complex multilayer coatings.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Thoeniss and S. Mewes, “UV light—demands on optical systems,” Laser Photon. 3, 18–22 (2008).
  2. O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, “Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,” Proc. SPIE 4094, 83–92 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lappschies, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, “Extension of ion beam sputtered oxide mixtures into the UV spectral range,” in Optical Interference Coatings (OIC) 2007, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuA7.
  7. M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Optical monitoring of rugate filters,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59631Z (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).
  9. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1968).
  10. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2011

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Thoeniss and S. Mewes, “UV light—demands on optical systems,” Laser Photon. 3, 18–22 (2008).

2005

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Optical monitoring of rugate filters,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59631Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, “Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,” Proc. SPIE 4094, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, R.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beermann, N.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biskupek, J.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1968).

Brauneck, U.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, B.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, S.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chuvilin, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, H.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, K.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).

Fuhrberg, P.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gäbler, D.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, Y.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Görtz, B.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Optical monitoring of rugate filters,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59631Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groß, T.

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, “Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,” Proc. SPIE 4094, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grössl, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hallbauer, A.

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Held, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huber, D.

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jupé, M.

M. Lappschies, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, “Extension of ion beam sputtered oxide mixtures into the UV spectral range,” in Optical Interference Coatings (OIC) 2007, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuA7.

Kaiser, N.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaless, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, M.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolitsch, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

König, F.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, A.

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lappschies, M.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Optical monitoring of rugate filters,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59631Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, “Extension of ion beam sputtered oxide mixtures into the UV spectral range,” in Optical Interference Coatings (OIC) 2007, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuA7.

Laux, S.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mende, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, S.

T. Thoeniss and S. Mewes, “UV light—demands on optical systems,” Laser Photon. 3, 18–22 (2008).

Moustakas, T. D.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J. C.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munnik, F.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rau, B.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riggers, W.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Optical monitoring of rugate filters,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59631Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, “Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,” Proc. SPIE 4094, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, “Extension of ion beam sputtered oxide mixtures into the UV spectral range,” in Optical Interference Coatings (OIC) 2007, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuA7.

Schäfer, D.

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schlichtherle, S.

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schürmann, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, “Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,” Proc. SPIE 4094, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, G. N.

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thoeniss, T.

T. Thoeniss and S. Mewes, “UV light—demands on optical systems,” Laser Photon. 3, 18–22 (2008).

Tiedje, T.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Treichel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vergöhl, M.

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vinnichenko, M.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilbrandt, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1968).

Wunderlich, B.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wüthrich, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Colloq.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, T. D. Moustakas, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. Colloq. 42, C4-301–C4-304 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon.

T. Thoeniss and S. Mewes, “UV light—demands on optical systems,” Laser Photon. 3, 18–22 (2008).

Opt. Mat. Express

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin, N. Kaiser, M. Held, A. Tünnermann, J. Biskupek, and U. Kaiser, “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mat. Express 1, 278–292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, M. Mende, H. Ehlers, D. Ristau, S. Bruns, M. Vergöhl, W. Riggers, M. Bischoff, and M. Held, “Optical and mechanical properties of oxide UV coatings, prepared by PVD techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681W (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, “Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,” Proc. SPIE 4094, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Optical monitoring of rugate filters,” Proc. SPIE 5963, 59631Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehlers, K. Becker, R. Beckmann, N. Beermann, U. Brauneck, P. Fuhrberg, D. Gäbler, S. Jakobs, N. Kaiser, M. Kennedy, F. König, S. Laux, J. C. Müller, B. Rau, W. Riggers, D. Ristau, D. Schäfer, and O. Stenzel, “Ion assisted deposition processes: industrial network IntIon,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 646–655 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, N. Kaiser, M. Vinnichenko, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, J. Ebert, S. Jakobs, A. Kaless, S. Wüthrich, O. Treichel, B. Wunderlich, M. Bitzer, and M. Grössl, “The correlation between mechanical stress, thermal shift and refractive index in HfO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers and its relation to the layer porosity,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6058–6068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hallbauer, D. Huber, G. N. Strauss, S. Schlichtherle, A. Kunz, and H. K. Pulker, “Overview about the optical properties and mechanical stress of different dielectric thin films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating,” Thin Solid Films 516, 4587–4592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 21, 15–23 (2009).

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1968).

M. Lappschies, M. Jupé, and D. Ristau, “Extension of ion beam sputtered oxide mixtures into the UV spectral range,” in Optical Interference Coatings (OIC) 2007, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuA7.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Algebraic sum of measured reflectance and transmittance R+T (left) and R (right) of SiO2 single layer deposited on fused silica after deposition (as-deposited) and after annealing (postdeposition treatment).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Algebraic sum of measured reflectance and transmittance R+T of HfO2 single layers deposited on fused silica after deposition (as-deposited) and after annealing (postdeposition treatment).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

XRD measurements of HfO2 single layers after deposition and after postdeposition treatment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated absorption losses from R and T measurements of SiO2 single layers after deposition and after postdeposition treatment (scattering losses are neglected).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated absorption losses from R and T measurements of HfO2 single layers after deposition and after postdeposition treatment (scattering losses are neglected).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated optical constants n and k for SiO2 single layers deposited on fused silica.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated optical constants n and k for HfO2 single layers deposited on fused silica.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Surface mapping of an HfO2 single layer on fused silica after deposition (as-deposited; left) and after postdeposition treatment (right).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Thin-film stress results of HfO2 single layer annealed at different temperatures (left) and deposited on different substrate materials (right).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectral photometry measurements of multilayer coatings after deposition and after postdeposition treatment: UV broadband dielectric mirror with Rav>99% (left) and UV short-pass filter with Tav>97% (right).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Thin-film stress results of HfO2/SiO2 multilayer coatings to achieve zero stress after the postdeposition treatment.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Surface mapping of an HfO2/SiO2 multilayer coating on fused silica after deposition (as-deposited; left) and after postdeposition treatment with optimized process parameters (right).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Overview of Deposited HfO2 and SiO2 Single Layers for Detailed Characterization

Tables Icon

Table 2. Results from Spectral Photometry and Stress Measurementa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Results from Spectral Photometry and Stress Measurementa

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