Abstract

This study investigates the optical constants of WO3 electrochromic films and NiO ion-storage films in bleached and colored states and that of a Ta2O5 film used as an ion conductor. These thin films were all prepared by electron-beam evaporation and characterized using a spectroscopic ellipsometer. The spectra obtained using a spectrophotometer and those calculated from the optical constants agreed closely. An all-solid thin-film reflective electrochromic device was fabricated and discussed. Its mean contrast ratio of reflectance in the range of 400–700 nm was 37.91.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ghosh, M. B. Baker, and R. Lopez, “Optical properties and aging of gasochromic WO3,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2247–2249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Subrahmanyam, C. S. Kumar, and K. M. Karuppasamy, “A note on fast protonic solid state electrochromic device: NiOx/Ta2O5/WO3−x,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 62–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. A. Argun and J. R. Reynolds, “Line patterning for flexible and laterally configured electrochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 1793–1800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Grätzel, “Ultrafast colour displays,” Nature 409, 575–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelattic, “Reflectance and transmittance of a slightly inhomogeneous thin film bounded by rough, unparallel interfaces,” Thin Solid Films 396, 264–275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic tungsten oxide films: review of progress 1993-1998,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 60, 201–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Bange, “Colouration of tungsten oxide films: a model for optically active coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 58, 1–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Macrelli, “Electrochromic windows,” Renew. Energy 15, 306–311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. K. Shen and A. C. C. Tseung, “In situ monitoring of electrode polarisation during the operation of an electrochromic device based on WO3,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 389, 219–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. M. Lampert, “Towards large-area photovoltaic nanocells: experiences learned from smart window technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 32, 307–321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. A. Wruck and M. Rubin, “Structure and electronic properties of electrochromic NiO films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1097–1104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. R. Ottermann, J. G. Segner, and K. Bange, “PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices,” Proc. SPIE 1728, 211–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. R. Ottermann, A. Temmink, and K. Bange, “Comparison of tungsten and nickel oxide electrochromism in single films and in all-solid-state devices,” Thin Solid Films 193–194, 409–417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, W. Wanger, and F. Rauch, “Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by nuclear reaction analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

F. G. K. Baucke, K. Bange, and T. Gambke, “Reflecting electrochromic devices,” Displays 9, 179–187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

F. G. K. Baucke, “Electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 67–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. A. Thornton, “High rate thick film growth,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239–260 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Argun, A. A.

A. A. Argun and J. R. Reynolds, “Line patterning for flexible and laterally configured electrochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 1793–1800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Azens, A.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bach, U.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, M. B.

R. Ghosh, M. B. Baker, and R. Lopez, “Optical properties and aging of gasochromic WO3,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2247–2249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bange, K.

K. Bange, “Colouration of tungsten oxide films: a model for optically active coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 58, 1–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, J. G. Segner, and K. Bange, “PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices,” Proc. SPIE 1728, 211–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, W. Wanger, and F. Rauch, “Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by nuclear reaction analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, A. Temmink, and K. Bange, “Comparison of tungsten and nickel oxide electrochromism in single films and in all-solid-state devices,” Thin Solid Films 193–194, 409–417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. G. K. Baucke, K. Bange, and T. Gambke, “Reflecting electrochromic devices,” Displays 9, 179–187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baucke, F. G. K.

F. G. K. Baucke, K. Bange, and T. Gambke, “Reflecting electrochromic devices,” Displays 9, 179–187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. G. K. Baucke, “Electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 67–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bertran, E.

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boschloo, G.

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corr, D.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Costa, M. F.

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H. N.

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cummins, D.

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Fantini, M. C. A.

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faria, I. C.

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fay, D.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, F. F.

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, D.

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gambke, T.

F. G. K. Baucke, K. Bange, and T. Gambke, “Reflecting electrochromic devices,” Displays 9, 179–187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, R.

R. Ghosh, M. B. Baker, and R. Lopez, “Optical properties and aging of gasochromic WO3,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2247–2249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, A.

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic tungsten oxide films: review of progress 1993-1998,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 60, 201–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials (Elsevier, 2002).

Grätzel, M.

M. Grätzel, “Ultrafast colour displays,” Nature 409, 575–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Green, S.

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hjelm, A.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inamdar, A. I.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jang, B. U.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karuppasamy, K. M.

A. Subrahmanyam, C. S. Kumar, and K. M. Karuppasamy, “A note on fast protonic solid state electrochromic device: NiOx/Ta2O5/WO3−x,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 62–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kinsella, M.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kullman, L.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, C. S.

A. Subrahmanyam, C. S. Kumar, and K. M. Karuppasamy, “A note on fast protonic solid state electrochromic device: NiOx/Ta2O5/WO3−x,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 62–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lampert, C. M.

C. M. Lampert, “Towards large-area photovoltaic nanocells: experiences learned from smart window technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 32, 307–321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

R. Ghosh, M. B. Baker, and R. Lopez, “Optical properties and aging of gasochromic WO3,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2247–2249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).

Macrelli, G.

G. Macrelli, “Electrochromic windows,” Renew. Energy 15, 306–311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, M. S.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McAtamney, C.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monk, P. M. S.

P. M. S. Monk, R. J. Mortimer, and D. R. Rosseinsky, Electrochromism and Electrochromic Devices (Cambridge, 2007).

Montecchi, M.

M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelattic, “Reflectance and transmittance of a slightly inhomogeneous thin film bounded by rough, unparallel interfaces,” Thin Solid Films 396, 264–275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R. M.

M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelattic, “Reflectance and transmittance of a slightly inhomogeneous thin film bounded by rough, unparallel interfaces,” Thin Solid Films 396, 264–275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mortimer, R. J.

P. M. S. Monk, R. J. Mortimer, and D. R. Rosseinsky, Electrochromism and Electrochromic Devices (Cambridge, 2007).

Nichelattic, E.

M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelattic, “Reflectance and transmittance of a slightly inhomogeneous thin film bounded by rough, unparallel interfaces,” Thin Solid Films 396, 264–275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, F.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ottermann, C. R.

C. R. Ottermann, J. G. Segner, and K. Bange, “PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices,” Proc. SPIE 1728, 211–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, A. Temmink, and K. Bange, “Comparison of tungsten and nickel oxide electrochromism in single films and in all-solid-state devices,” Thin Solid Films 193–194, 409–417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, W. Wanger, and F. Rauch, “Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by nuclear reaction analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Porqueras, I.

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. N.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rauch, F.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, W. Wanger, and F. Rauch, “Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by nuclear reaction analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. R.

A. A. Argun and J. R. Reynolds, “Line patterning for flexible and laterally configured electrochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 1793–1800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ronnow, D.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosseinsky, D. R.

P. M. S. Monk, R. J. Mortimer, and D. R. Rosseinsky, Electrochromism and Electrochromic Devices (Cambridge, 2007).

Rubin, M.

D. A. Wruck and M. Rubin, “Structure and electronic properties of electrochromic NiO films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1097–1104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, M.

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Segner, J. G.

C. R. Ottermann, J. G. Segner, and K. Bange, “PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices,” Proc. SPIE 1728, 211–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, P. K.

P. K. Shen and A. C. C. Tseung, “In situ monitoring of electrode polarisation during the operation of an electrochromic device based on WO3,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 389, 219–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stobie, N.

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Subrahmanyam, A.

A. Subrahmanyam, C. S. Kumar, and K. M. Karuppasamy, “A note on fast protonic solid state electrochromic device: NiOx/Ta2O5/WO3−x,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 62–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

Tabacniks, M. H.

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teixeira, V.

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Temmink, A.

C. R. Ottermann, A. Temmink, and K. Bange, “Comparison of tungsten and nickel oxide electrochromism in single films and in all-solid-state devices,” Thin Solid Films 193–194, 409–417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “High rate thick film growth,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239–260 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Tseung, A. C. C.

P. K. Shen and A. C. C. Tseung, “In situ monitoring of electrode polarisation during the operation of an electrochromic device based on WO3,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 389, 219–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vaivars, G.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valyukh, I.

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veszelei, M.

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wäckelgård, E.

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wanger, W.

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, W. Wanger, and F. Rauch, “Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by nuclear reaction analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wruck, D. A.

D. A. Wruck and M. Rubin, “Structure and electronic properties of electrochromic NiO films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1097–1104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

J. A. Thornton, “High rate thick film growth,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239–260 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Displays

F. G. K. Baucke, K. Bange, and T. Gambke, “Reflecting electrochromic devices,” Displays 9, 179–187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem.

P. K. Shen and A. C. C. Tseung, “In situ monitoring of electrode polarisation during the operation of an electrochromic device based on WO3,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 389, 219–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

D. A. Wruck and M. Rubin, “Structure and electronic properties of electrochromic NiO films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 1097–1104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

A. A. Argun and J. R. Reynolds, “Line patterning for flexible and laterally configured electrochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 1793–1800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

D. Cummins, G. Boschloo, M. Ryan, D. Corr, S. N. Rao, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Ultrafast electrochromic windows based on redox-chromophore modified nanostructured semiconducting and conducting films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 11449–11459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Grätzel, “Ultrafast colour displays,” Nature 409, 575–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

K. Bange, C. R. Ottermann, W. Wanger, and F. Rauch, “Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by nuclear reaction analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, J. G. Segner, and K. Bange, “PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices,” Proc. SPIE 1728, 211–222 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Energy

G. Macrelli, “Electrochromic windows,” Renew. Energy 15, 306–311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. Ronnow, M. S. Mattsson, M. Veszelei, and G. Vaivars, “Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications,” Sol. Energy 63, 199–216 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater.

F. G. K. Baucke, “Electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 67–77 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

C. M. Lampert, “Towards large-area photovoltaic nanocells: experiences learned from smart window technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 32, 307–321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromic tungsten oxide films: review of progress 1993-1998,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 60, 201–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, “Colouration of tungsten oxide films: a model for optically active coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 58, 1–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Valyukh, S. Green, H. Arwin, G. A. Niklasson, E. Wäckelgård, and C. G. Granqvist, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 724–732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Subrahmanyam, C. S. Kumar, and K. M. Karuppasamy, “A note on fast protonic solid state electrochromic device: NiOx/Ta2O5/WO3−x,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 62–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics

F. F. Ferreira, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, I. C. Faria, and A. Gorenstein, “Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films deposited under different sputtering conditions,” Solid State Ionics 86–88, 971–976 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Corr, U. Bach, D. Fay, M. Kinsella, C. McAtamney, F. O’Reilly, S. N. Rao, and N. Stobie, “Coloured electrochromic ‘paper-quality’ displays based on modified mesoporous electrodes,” Solid State Ionics 165, 315–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

H. N. Cui, M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, and E. Bertran, “Electrochromic coatings for smart windows,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 1127–1131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

A. I. Inamdar, Y. S. Kim, B. U. Jang, H. Im, W. Jung, D. Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on electrochromic properties in amorphous tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 520, 5367–5371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, A. Temmink, and K. Bange, “Comparison of tungsten and nickel oxide electrochromism in single films and in all-solid-state devices,” Thin Solid Films 193–194, 409–417 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Ghosh, M. B. Baker, and R. Lopez, “Optical properties and aging of gasochromic WO3,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2247–2249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, and E. Nichelattic, “Reflectance and transmittance of a slightly inhomogeneous thin film bounded by rough, unparallel interfaces,” Thin Solid Films 396, 264–275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).

C. G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials (Elsevier, 2002).

P. M. S. Monk, R. J. Mortimer, and D. R. Rosseinsky, Electrochromism and Electrochromic Devices (Cambridge, 2007).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Variation in the properties of WO3 samples prepared at three deposition pressures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical constants of WO3 film prepared at a deposition pressure of 2×104Torr in bleached and colored states.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transmittance spectra of WO3 sample in bleached and colored states, and spectra calculated from constants in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmittance spectra of Ta2O5 samples prepared at three deposition pressures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical constants of Ta2O5 film prepared at deposition pressure of 4×104Torr.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured reflectance spectra of Ta2O5 sample and spectra calculated using constants in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

XRD patterns of NiO films prepared on ITO glass at three deposition rates.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Optical constants of NiO film prepared at deposition rate of 0.60.8nm/s in bleached and colored states.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured transmittance spectra of NiO sample in bleached and colored states, and spectra calculated using constants in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured and calculated reflectance spectra and CR of reflective electrochromic device in bleached and colored states.

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