Abstract

A novel and convenient color-tuning method by filling the porous alumina membrane (PAM) based on metal–dielectric–metal structure is proposed. The pore sizes of PAM as well as the thickness of TiO2 films, deposited by atomic layer deposition, causes various reflection colors due to multilayer interference effects. Overlapping films on top and within the PAM structure can be observed with a scanning electron microscope and will be used to show the change of the effective refractive index of the PAM composite layer. The color-tuning method resulting in changing the dynamics of the PAM layer can be widely applied in fields such as micro-optics, microstructures, nanomaterials, and micro/nanotechnology.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Y. Wu, A. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Science Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12, 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Baloukasand and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, W. Hwang, H. C. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Superhydrophobic nanostructures based on porous alumina,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 770–773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Daub, M. Knez, U. Goesele, and K. Nielsch, “Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09J111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, and S. M. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

O. Jessensky, F. Muller, and U. Gosele, “Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173–1175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1989

1973

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, and A. Waldorf, “Optical interference coatings for inhibiting of counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1950

A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical films,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 444–460 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1947

1904

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 203, 385–420 (1904).

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Artaud, L.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Baird, K. M.

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, and A. Waldorf, “Optical interference coatings for inhibiting of counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Baloukasand, B.

Berthomé, G.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Blanquet, E.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Bleikolm, A. F.

Boichot, R.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Brizé, V.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Carman, P. D.

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, and A. Waldorf, “Optical interference coatings for inhibiting of counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cialla, D.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coindeau, S.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Crozier, K. B.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12, 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Curtiss, L. A.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dan, Y.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Daub, M.

M. Daub, M. Knez, U. Goesele, and K. Nielsch, “Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09J111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dennison, D. M.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, and A. Waldorf, “Research on thin film anticounterfeiting coatings at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2702–2717 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, and A. Waldorf, “Optical interference coatings for inhibiting of counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Doisneau, B.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Dong, C.

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Duan, H. G.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Elam, J. W.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, and S. M. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12, 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Farcy, A.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Feng, H.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, S. M.

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, and S. M. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goesele, U.

M. Daub, M. Knez, U. Goesele, and K. Nielsch, “Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09J111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

O. Jessensky, F. Muller, and U. Gosele, “Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173–1175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Y. Wu, A. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Science Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, L. N.

Haehle, R.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. Y.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, R. S.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Hollowell, A.

Y. Wu, A. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Science Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, U.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.

D. Kim, W. Hwang, H. C. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Superhydrophobic nanostructures based on porous alumina,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 770–773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iton, L. E.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jessensky, O.

O. Jessensky, F. Muller, and U. Gosele, “Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173–1175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

D. Kim, W. Hwang, H. C. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Superhydrophobic nanostructures based on porous alumina,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 770–773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knez, M.

M. Daub, M. Knez, U. Goesele, and K. Nielsch, “Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09J111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koh, S. C. W.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, K.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kung, H.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kung, M.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

D. Kim, W. Hwang, H. C. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Superhydrophobic nanostructures based on porous alumina,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 770–773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics Pub, 2001).

Mantoux, A.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Mardilovich, P. P.

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, and S. M. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinu, L.

Mattheis, R.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 203, 385–420 (1904).

Meyer, H. G.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Muller, F.

O. Jessensky, F. Muller, and U. Gosele, “Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173–1175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nie, A.

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nielsch, K.

M. Daub, M. Knez, U. Goesele, and K. Nielsch, “Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09J111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuta, I.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. C.

D. Kim, W. Hwang, H. C. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Superhydrophobic nanostructures based on porous alumina,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 770–773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pellin, M. J.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. W.

Piao, Y.

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pons, M.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Popp, J.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, T.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Routkevitch, D.

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, and S. M. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneidewind, H.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12, 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stair, P. C.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanamura, Y.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teramae, N.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. F.

A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical films,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 444–460 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uejo, F.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Violet, P.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Volpi, F.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Waldorf, A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, and A. Waldorf, “Research on thin film anticounterfeiting coatings at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2702–2717 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, and A. Waldorf, “Optical interference coatings for inhibiting of counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. H.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J. N.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wober, M.

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, A. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Science Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, G.

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, T.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeisberger, M.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Wu, A. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Science Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Jessensky, F. Muller, and U. Gosele, “Self-organized formation of hexagonal pore arrays in anodic alumina,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1173–1175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

J. W. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. P. Mardilovich, and S. M. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater. 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Vapor Depos.

V. Brizé, T. Prieur, P. Violet, L. Artaud, G. Berthomé, E. Blanquet, R. Boichot, S. Coindeau, B. Doisneau, A. Farcy, A. Mantoux, I. Nuta, M. Pons, and F. Volpi, “Developments of TaN ALD process for 3D conformal coatings,” Chem. Vapor Depos. 17, 284–295 (2011).

Curr. Appl. Phys.

D. Kim, W. Hwang, H. C. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Superhydrophobic nanostructures based on porous alumina,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8, 770–773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electrochimica Acta

Y. Piao, H. Lim, J. Chang, W. Lee, and H. Kim, “Nanostructured materials prepared by use of ordered porous alumina membranes,” Electrochimica Acta 50, 2997–3013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Daub, M. Knez, U. Goesele, and K. Nielsch, “Ferromagnetic nanotubes by atomic layer deposition in anodic alumina membranes,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09J111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Chem. B

G. Xiong, J. W. Elam, H. Feng, C. Y. Han, H. H. Wang, L. E. Iton, L. A. Curtiss, M. J. Pellin, M. Kung, H. Kung, and P. C. Stair, “Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 14059–14063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Radium

A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical films,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 444–460 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

Q. Li, C. Dong, A. Nie, J. Liu, W. Zhou, and H. Wang, “Microstructure-dependent conformal atomic layer deposition on 3D nanotopography,” Langmuir 28, 15809–15815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

U. Huebner, K. Weber, D. Cialla, R. Haehle, H. Schneidewind, M. Zeisberger, R. Mattheis, H. G. Meyer, and J. Popp, “Microfabricated polymer-substrates for SERS,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12, 1026–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seo, M. Wober, P. Steinvurzel, E. Schonbrun, Y. Dan, T. Ellenbogen, and K. B. Crozier, “Multicolored vertical silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 1851–1856 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

A. Yamaguchi, F. Uejo, T. Yoda, T. Uchida, Y. Tanamura, T. Yamashita, and N. Teramae, “Self-assembly of a silica-surfactant nanocomposite in a porous alumina membrane,” Nat. Mater. 3, 337–341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

K. Kumar, H. G. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

J. A. Dobrowolski, K. M. Baird, P. D. Carman, and A. Waldorf, “Optical interference coatings for inhibiting of counterfeiting,” Opt. Acta 20, 925–937 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Li, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, X. Hao, H. Fan, and X. Liu, “Precise broad-band anti-refection coating fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Commun. 292, 31–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shen, X. Sun, Y. Zhang, Z. Luo, X. Liu, and P. Gu, “Narrow band filters in both transmission and reflection with metal/dielectric thin films,” Opt. Commun. 282, 242–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 203, 385–420 (1904).

Science Rep.

Y. Wu, A. Hollowell, C. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Angle-insensitive structural colours based on metallic nanocavities and coloured pixels beyond the diffraction limit,” Science Rep. 3, 1194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics Pub, 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the metal–dielectric–metal reflective color filter. (b) Reflectance of the structure shown in (a) with increasing optical thickness of PAM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of the PAM template after ALD TiO2 process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of a PAM template. (a) Top view. (b) Cross-sectional view.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PAM sample after the processes of ALD TiO2 and deposition Cr. Pore radius and thickness of TiO2 were both 20 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflectance of the five PAM templates of different pore sizes with different thicknesses of TiO2 and the insert displayed the perceived color of these samples with increasing thickness.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Peak wavelength of the PAM of different pore sizes with TiO2 deposited thickness t=35nm and the peak wavelength of the PAM with pore radius r=20nm for different TiO2 thickness.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated chromaticity coordinates of the samples in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Photo of the colorful pattern taken under daylight with yellow eagle and blue background. (b)–(e) SEM images of the two different regions at top view and cross-sectional view. Pore radius of the whole sample and the thickness are both 25 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Effective Refractive Index of All Pam Templates with Different Pore Sizes

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RegionAεeff,AεTiO2εeff,A+2εTiO2=δ1εAirεTiO2εAir+2εTiO2,RegionBεeff,BεAl2O3εeff,B+2εAl2O3=δ1εAirεAl2O3εAir+2εAl2O3+δ2εTiO2εAl2O3εTiO2+2εAl2O3,RegionCεeff,CεAl2O3εeff,C+2εAl2O3=(δ1+δ2)εTiO2εAl2O3εTiO2+2εAl2O3,neff,A=εeff,A2,neff,B=εeff,B2,neff,C=εeff,C2Totalneff=th+tneff,A+hth+tneff,B+th+tneff,C,

Metrics