Abstract

Aluminum layers protected with fluoride coatings have been deposited by evaporation and characterized with respect to their suitability as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) mirrors. Optical characterization has been performed by spectrophotometry, while the surface quality of the layers has been judged by means of x ray reflection, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In particular, protection with aluminum fluoride results in superior VUV reflection properties. VUV reflectance values between 80% and nearly 90% have been verified even two years after deposition and exposure to the atmosphere.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Hass, “Filmed surfaces for reflecting optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945–952 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hass and R. Tousey, “Reflecting coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 593–602 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, A. Pons, and J. A. Méndez, “Vacuum ultraviolet coatings of Al protected with MgF2 prepared both by ion-beam sputtering and by evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4871–4878 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. F. Osantowski, and A. R. Toft, “Preparation of mirror coatings for the vacuum ultraviolet in a 2-m evaporator,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1183–1189 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. W. Angel, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, and G. Hass, “Extreme ultraviolet reflectance of LiF-coated aluminum mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 913–914 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, and J. E. Waylonis, “Further studies on MgF2 overcoated aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 5, 45–50 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. R. Hunter, J. F. Osantowski, and G. Hass, “Reflectance of aluminum overcoated with MgF2 and LiF in the wavelength region from 1600A to 300A at various angles of incidence,” Appl. Opt. 10, 540–544 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. R. Wodd, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, “Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3644–3649 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2 and SiO2,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. S. Barriére and A. Lachter, “Optical transitions in disordered thin films of the ionic compounds MgF2 and AlF3 as a function of their conditions of preparation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2865–2871 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 5, 61–67 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Lee, M. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7333–7338 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. D. Palik and W. R. Hunter, “Lithium fluoride (LiF),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, eds. (Academic, 1985), pp. 675–693.
  15. V. Dauer, “Optical constants of lithium fluoride thin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 17, 300–303 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. K. Pulker, “Characterization of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1969–1977 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. B. Gillette and B. A. Kenyon, “Proton-induced contaminant film effects on ultraviolet reflecting mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 10, 545–551 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminium oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. S. Edmends, C. N. Maldé, and S. J. B. Corrigan, “Measurements of the far ultraviolet reflectivity of evaporated aluminium films under exposure to O2, H2O, CO and CO2,” Vacuum 40, 471–475 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining RMS roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154–171 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. T. Hutcheson, G. Hass, and J. T. Cox, “Effect of deposition rate and substrate temperature on the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance of MgF2- and LiF-overcoated aluminum mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2245–2248 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

2010

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Dauer, “Optical constants of lithium fluoride thin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 17, 300–303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminium oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. S. Edmends, C. N. Maldé, and S. J. B. Corrigan, “Measurements of the far ultraviolet reflectivity of evaporated aluminium films under exposure to O2, H2O, CO and CO2,” Vacuum 40, 471–475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2 and SiO2,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

1979

1977

1972

1971

1970

W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 5, 61–67 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

1966

1961

1959

1955

Angel, D. W.

Aznárez, J. A.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, A. Pons, and J. A. Méndez, “Vacuum ultraviolet coatings of Al protected with MgF2 prepared both by ion-beam sputtering and by evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4871–4878 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barriére, A. S.

Bennett, J. M.

Blaschke, H.

P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, A. P.

Bridou, F.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calvo-Agnós, J.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

Corrigan, S. J. B.

J. S. Edmends, C. N. Maldé, and S. J. B. Corrigan, “Measurements of the far ultraviolet reflectivity of evaporated aluminium films under exposure to O2, H2O, CO and CO2,” Vacuum 40, 471–475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. T.

Craighead, H. G.

Cuniot-Ponsard, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dauer, V.

V. Dauer, “Optical constants of lithium fluoride thin films in the far ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 17, 300–303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Desvignes, J.-M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Edmends, J. S.

J. S. Edmends, C. N. Maldé, and S. J. B. Corrigan, “Measurements of the far ultraviolet reflectivity of evaporated aluminium films under exposure to O2, H2O, CO and CO2,” Vacuum 40, 471–475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Perea, M.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, A. Pons, and J. A. Méndez, “Vacuum ultraviolet coatings of Al protected with MgF2 prepared both by ion-beam sputtering and by evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4871–4878 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferré-Borrull, J.

French, R. H.

R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminium oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, K.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, R. B.

Gliech, S.

Gottwald, A.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heitmann, W.

W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 5, 61–67 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Hutcheson, E. T.

Jones, D. J.

R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminium oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kadkhoda, P.

P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

Kenyon, B. A.

Kohlhaas, J.

P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lachter, A.

Larruquert, J. I.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, A. Pons, and J. A. Méndez, “Vacuum ultraviolet coatings of Al protected with MgF2 prepared both by ion-beam sputtering and by evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4871–4878 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Lemaire, P.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Maksimovic, I.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maldé, C. N.

J. S. Edmends, C. N. Maldé, and S. J. B. Corrigan, “Measurements of the far ultraviolet reflectivity of evaporated aluminium films under exposure to O2, H2O, CO and CO2,” Vacuum 40, 471–475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, P. J.

Méndez, J. A.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, A. Pons, and J. A. Méndez, “Vacuum ultraviolet coatings of Al protected with MgF2 prepared both by ion-beam sputtering and by evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4871–4878 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Müllejans, H.

R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminium oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

Notni, G.

Osantowski, J. F.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik and W. R. Hunter, “Lithium fluoride (LiF),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, eds. (Academic, 1985), pp. 675–693.

Pons, A.

Pulker, H. K.

Richter, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spann, J. F.

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, J. E.

Takano, Y.

Toft, A. R.

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

Tousey, R.

Waylonis, J. E.

Wilbrandt, S.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wodd, O. R.

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt.

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, A. Pons, and J. A. Méndez, “Vacuum ultraviolet coatings of Al protected with MgF2 prepared both by ion-beam sputtering and by evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4871–4878 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. F. Osantowski, and A. R. Toft, “Preparation of mirror coatings for the vacuum ultraviolet in a 2-m evaporator,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1183–1189 (1969).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, and J. E. Waylonis, “Further studies on MgF2 overcoated aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 5, 45–50 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Osantowski, and G. Hass, “Reflectance of aluminum overcoated with MgF2 and LiF in the wavelength region from 1600A to 300A at various angles of incidence,” Appl. Opt. 10, 540–544 (1971).
[CrossRef]

O. R. Wodd, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, “Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3644–3649 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2 and SiO2,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Barriére and A. Lachter, “Optical transitions in disordered thin films of the ionic compounds MgF2 and AlF3 as a function of their conditions of preparation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2865–2871 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Lee, M. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7333–7338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, “Characterization of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1969–1977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Gillette and B. A. Kenyon, “Proton-induced contaminant film effects on ultraviolet reflecting mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 10, 545–551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining RMS roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154–171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Hutcheson, G. Hass, and J. T. Cox, “Effect of deposition rate and substrate temperature on the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance of MgF2- and LiF-overcoated aluminum mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2245–2248 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminium oxide: determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2549–2557 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, M. Richter, U. Kroth, and A. Gottwald, “Experimental determination of optical constants of MgF2 and AlF3 thin films in the vacuum ultra-violet wavelength region (60–124 nm), and its application to optical designs,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1351–1358 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, “VUV mirrors for the (80–120 nm) spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 627–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kadkhoda, H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, and D. Ristau, “Investigations of transmittance and reflectance in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” Proc. SPIE 4099, 311–318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. Calvo-Agnós, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Far ultraviolet reflectance variation of MgF2-protected aluminum films under controlled exposure to the main components of the atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 497, 249–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Heitmann, “Vacuum evaporated films of aluminum fluoride,” Thin Solid Films 5, 61–67 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

J. S. Edmends, C. N. Maldé, and S. J. B. Corrigan, “Measurements of the far ultraviolet reflectivity of evaporated aluminium films under exposure to O2, H2O, CO and CO2,” Vacuum 40, 471–475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vak. Forsch. Prax.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische modellierung der NIR/VIS/UV optischen konstanten dünner optischer schichten im rahmen des oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21, 15–23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik and W. R. Hunter, “Lithium fluoride (LiF),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, eds. (Academic, 1985), pp. 675–693.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic mirror design and impact of absorption and scatter to reflectance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Deposition plant Syrus pro 1100.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM and SEM images of 50 and 100 nm thick single layer fluoride coatings on fused silica (AFM) and silicon (SEM). AFM scan size: 1μm×1μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated roughness based on XRR measurements of 100 nm thick aluminum fluoride layers on silicon.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

AFM and SEM images of aluminum layers protected with 25 nm fluoride coatings (sample type 7–9 from Table 1) evaporated with deposition rates 0.2nm/s and 2.0nm/s on fused silica (AFM) and silicon (SEM). AFM scan size: 1μm×1μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average UV/VIS reflectance (200–850 nm) of aluminum mirrors protected with a 25 nm fluoride layer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Average VUV reflectance (115–200 nm) of aluminum mirrors protected with a 25 nm fluoride layer.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Roughness values of single fluoride layers determined from XRR and AFM measurements.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Correlation between surface roughness values from AFM characterization and average reflectance of protected aluminum mirrors in the VUV spectral range.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectral performance of an aluminum mirror protected with LiF and MgF2. The dashed line indicates theoretical performance.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Spectral performance of an aluminum mirror protected with AlF3, LiF, and MgF2. The dashed line indicates theoretical performance.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Overview of Prepared Sample Types

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Table 2. Overview of Roughness Values for Protected Aluminum Mirrors

Metrics