Abstract

We compare results for the UV index (UVI), the total ozone column (TOC), and the radiation modification factor (RMF, being 1 in the absence of clouds and aerosols) at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau. The results were obtained by analyzing ground measurements by multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instruments for the period July 2008–September 2010, and radiative transfer modeling was used to aid the interpretation of the results. The highest UVI of 20.6 was measured in Tingri (28.7°N; 4335 m). For July, monthly mean UVI values were 14.5 and 12.9 in Tingri and Lhasa (29.7°N; 3683 m), respectively. Generally, the UVI levels in Tingri and Lhasa were higher than in Nagchu (31.5°N; 4510 m) and Linzhi (29.7°N; 2995 m), due to less cloud cover at the former two sites. In 2009, the annual mean UVI and RMF values were 6.8 and 0.7 for Linzhi, 8.8 and 0.92 for Lhasa, 10.5 and 0.92 for Tingri, and 6.7 and 0.7 for Nagchu. Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the latitude difference would correspond to an increase in the UVI of about 0.3 from Nagchu to Tingri; whereas, the altitude difference would correspond to a reduction of about 1.5%, implying that the observed difference is due to the difference in cloud cover. The annual mean TOC values were found to be 260–264 Dobson units (DU) in Lhasa, Linzhi, and Nagchu, and 252 DU in Tingri. TOC values in Lhasa were found to agree within 3% with those derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).
  2. A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. L. Diffey, “Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 299–328 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Parrish, K. F. Jaenicke, and R. R. Anderson, “Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 187–191 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Clydesdale, G. W. Dandie, and H. K. Muller, “Ultraviolet light-induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 547–568 (2001).
  7. G. Horneck, “Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance, life science: planetary protection; ozone and UVB radiation effects,” Adv. Space Res. 16, 1983–1994 (2001).
  8. R. M. Lucas and A. L. Ponsonby, “Ultraviolet radiation and health: friend and foe,” Med. J. Australia 177, 594–598 (2002).
  9. S. Mouret, A. Forestier, and T. Douki, “The specificity of UVA-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes,” Photochem. Photobio. S. 11, 155–162 (2012).
  10. J. M. Norris, “Can the sunshine vitamin shed light on type 1 diabetes,” Lancet 358, 1476–1478 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. UNEP, “Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interaction with climate change: 2010 assessment,” Nairobi, 278, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2010).
  12. M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Teklemariam and T. J. Blake, “Effects of UVB preconditioning on heat tolerance of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.),” Environ. Exp. Bot. 50, 169–182 (2003).
  14. S. J. L’Hirondelle and W. D. Binder, “Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 1094–1100 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. R. Solomon, “Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment,” Atmos. Ocean 46, 185–202 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. B. C. Ren, F. Sigernes, and Y. Gjessing, “Ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in Tibet: preliminary results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1359–1362 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
  20. H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. World Metereological Organization (WMO), “GAW report, No.  190. Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation part 3: multi-channel filter instruments,” (WMO, 2010), p. 18.
  29. T. N. Aalerud and B. Johnsen, “The Norwegian UV monitoring network. period 1995/96 to 2004,” , (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, 2006).
  30. J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” Comput. Ind. Eng. 6, 17–22 (1987).
  33. WMO, “Report of the WMO meeting of experts on UV-B measurements, data, quality and standardization of UV indices, Switzerland, 25-28 July 1994,” (WMO TD No. 625). 95, UV Monitoring and Assessment Program Panel, WHO Rep. (1994).
  34. WHO, “Global solar UV index: A practical guide,” (World Health Organization, 2002).
  35. J. Calbó, D. Pagès, and J. A. González, “Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: a review,” Rev. Geophys. 43, RG2002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Lindfors and A. Arola, “On the wavelength-dependent attenuation of UV radiation by clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L05806 (2007).
  37. G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).
  38. D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  40. T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  43. “U. S. standard atmosphere 1976” (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977).
  44. L. T. Molina and M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185 to 350  nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  45. M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  46. R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  47. M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).
  48. M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).
  49. M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  50. D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  51. P. K. Bhartia and C. W. Wellemeyer, “OMI–TOMS-V8 total O3 algorithm,” in Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document: OMI Ozone Products, Vol. 2 (ATBD-OMI-02, version 2.0 ed.), P. K. Bhartia, ed. (2002).
  52. G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  53. K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  54. M. L. Nack and A. E. S. Green, “Influence of clouds, haze, and smog on the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2405–2415 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  55. G. Seckmeyer and H. D. Payer, “A new sunlight simulator for ecological research on plants,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 21, 175–181 (1993).
  56. F. M. Mims, “Cumulus clouds and UV-B,” Nature 371, 291 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  57. J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  58. J. Sabburg and J. Wong, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: a one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  59. J. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, “Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a one year preliminary study,” Atmos. Res. 66, 261–272 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  60. M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  61. G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.
  62. R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012

S. Mouret, A. Forestier, and T. Douki, “The specificity of UVA-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes,” Photochem. Photobio. S. 11, 155–162 (2012).

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Solomon, “Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment,” Atmos. Ocean 46, 185–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Lindfors and A. Arola, “On the wavelength-dependent attenuation of UV radiation by clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L05806 (2007).

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. L’Hirondelle and W. D. Binder, “Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 1094–1100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Calbó, D. Pagès, and J. A. González, “Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: a review,” Rev. Geophys. 43, RG2002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Teklemariam and T. J. Blake, “Effects of UVB preconditioning on heat tolerance of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.),” Environ. Exp. Bot. 50, 169–182 (2003).

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, “Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a one year preliminary study,” Atmos. Res. 66, 261–272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. M. Lucas and A. L. Ponsonby, “Ultraviolet radiation and health: friend and foe,” Med. J. Australia 177, 594–598 (2002).

2001

G. J. Clydesdale, G. W. Dandie, and H. K. Muller, “Ultraviolet light-induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 547–568 (2001).

G. Horneck, “Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance, life science: planetary protection; ozone and UVB radiation effects,” Adv. Space Res. 16, 1983–1994 (2001).

J. M. Norris, “Can the sunshine vitamin shed light on type 1 diabetes,” Lancet 358, 1476–1478 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Sabburg and J. Wong, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: a one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

1997

P. B. C. Ren, F. Sigernes, and Y. Gjessing, “Ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in Tibet: preliminary results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1359–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. M. Mims, “Cumulus clouds and UV-B,” Nature 371, 291 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Seckmeyer and H. D. Payer, “A new sunlight simulator for ecological research on plants,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 21, 175–181 (1993).

1991

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Diffey, “Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 299–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” Comput. Ind. Eng. 6, 17–22 (1987).

1986

L. T. Molina and M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185 to 350  nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. A. Parrish, K. F. Jaenicke, and R. R. Anderson, “Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 187–191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974

Aalerud, T. N.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Aalerud and B. Johnsen, “The Norwegian UV monitoring network. period 1995/96 to 2004,” , (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, 2006).

Alados-Arboledas, L.

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Albold, A.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

J. A. Parrish, K. F. Jaenicke, and R. R. Anderson, “Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 187–191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anton, M.

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arola, A.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lindfors and A. Arola, “On the wavelength-dependent attenuation of UV radiation by clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L05806 (2007).

Bacmeister, J.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Bagheri, A.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Bais, A. F.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banon, M.

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, W. F.

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, E. J.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Bhartia, P. K.

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Bhartia and C. W. Wellemeyer, “OMI–TOMS-V8 total O3 algorithm,” in Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document: OMI Ozone Products, Vol. 2 (ATBD-OMI-02, version 2.0 ed.), P. K. Bhartia, ed. (2002).

Bilbao, J.

D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Binder, W. D.

S. J. L’Hirondelle and W. D. Binder, “Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 1094–1100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Björn, L.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blake, T. J.

T. Teklemariam and T. J. Blake, “Effects of UVB preconditioning on heat tolerance of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.),” Environ. Exp. Bot. 50, 169–182 (2003).

Bloom, S.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Blumthaler, M.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Booth, C. R.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Booth, S. L.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bornman, J.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosilovich, M. G.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Bowen, M.

Brekke, P.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brinksma, E. J.

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Calbó, J.

J. Calbó, D. Pagès, and J. A. González, “Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: a review,” Rev. Geophys. 43, RG2002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M. M.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, F.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Chen, J.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Chiu, J. C.

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clydesdale, G. J.

G. J. Clydesdale, G. W. Dandie, and H. K. Muller, “Ultraviolet light-induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 547–568 (2001).

Collins, D.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Conaty, A.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Cordero, R. R.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costa, M. J.

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crescenti, G. H.

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, E.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’Agostino, R. B.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, A.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Dahlback, A.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dandie, G. W.

G. J. Clydesdale, G. W. Dandie, and H. K. Muller, “Ultraviolet light-induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 547–568 (2001).

Danielsen, T.

DaSilva, L.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de la Casiniere, A.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

de Miguel, A.

D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deferrari, G.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

den Outer, P.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Diffey, B. L.

B. L. Diffey, “Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 299–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” Comput. Ind. Eng. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Disterhoft, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Douki, T.

S. Mouret, A. Forestier, and T. Douki, “The specificity of UVA-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes,” Photochem. Photobio. S. 11, 155–162 (2012).

Eck, T. F.

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Edvardsen, K.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eide, H. A.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eleftheratos, K.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erb, R.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Estupiñán, J. G.

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flint, S.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forestier, A.

S. Mouret, A. Forestier, and T. Douki, “The specificity of UVA-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes,” Photochem. Photobio. S. 11, 155–162 (2012).

Frette, Ø.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Gelaro, R.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Gelsor, N.

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giannakaki, E.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gies, H. P.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

Gjessing, Y.

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. B. C. Ren, F. Sigernes, and Y. Gjessing, “Ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in Tibet: preliminary results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1359–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glandorf, M.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

González, J. A.

J. Calbó, D. Pagès, and J. A. González, “Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: a review,” Rev. Geophys. 43, RG2002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Görts, P.

Grant, W. B.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. E. S.

Grobner, J.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Gröbner, J.

Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hamre, B.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, R.

Henriques, D.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Høiskar, B. A. K.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Høkedal, J.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holick, M. F.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horneck, G.

G. Horneck, “Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance, life science: planetary protection; ozone and UVB radiation effects,” Adv. Space Res. 16, 1983–1994 (2001).

Hwang, P. H.

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ingelsson, E.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, P. F.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaenicke, K. F.

J. A. Parrish, K. F. Jaenicke, and R. R. Anderson, “Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 187–191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jager, H.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janouch, M.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Jayaweera, K.

Johnsen, B.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Aalerud and B. Johnsen, “The Norwegian UV monitoring network. period 1995/96 to 2004,” , (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, 2006).

Juzeniene, A.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaurola, J.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Kazadzis, S.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kazantzidis, A.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-K.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Kimlin, M. G.

J. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, “Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a one year preliminary study,” Atmos. Res. 66, 261–272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Kjeldstad, B.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kocbach, L.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koskela, T.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koukouli, M. E.

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kouremeti, N.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroon, M.

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kulandaivelu, G.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

L’Hirondelle, S. J.

S. J. L’Hirondelle and W. D. Binder, “Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 1094–1100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Labbe, F.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Labow, G.

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lakkala, K.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lanier, K.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Levelt, P. F.

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

Lindfors, A.

A. Lindfors and A. Arola, “On the wavelength-dependent attenuation of UV radiation by clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L05806 (2007).

Liu, E.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Lopez, M.

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, R. M.

R. M. Lucas and A. L. Ponsonby, “Ultraviolet radiation and health: friend and foe,” Med. J. Australia 177, 594–598 (2002).

Lugg, D. J.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

Mateos, D.

D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” Comput. Ind. Eng. 6, 17–22 (1987).

McPeters, R.

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R. D.

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meinander, O.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meleti, C.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michael, F.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mims, F. M.

F. M. Mims, “Cumulus clouds and UV-B,” Nature 371, 291 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, M.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Moan, J.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moan, K.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Molina, L. T.

L. T. Molina and M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185 to 350  nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

L. T. Molina and M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185 to 350  nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mouret, S.

S. Mouret, A. Forestier, and T. Douki, “The specificity of UVA-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes,” Photochem. Photobio. S. 11, 155–162 (2012).

Muller, H. K.

G. J. Clydesdale, G. W. Dandie, and H. K. Muller, “Ultraviolet light-induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 547–568 (2001).

Nack, M. L.

Nicolet, M.

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, L. T.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nima, P.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norris, J. M.

J. M. Norris, “Can the sunshine vitamin shed light on type 1 diabetes,” Lancet 358, 1476–1478 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Norsang, G.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, H.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okullo, W.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olmo, F.

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, R. O.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pagès, D.

J. Calbó, D. Pagès, and J. A. González, “Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: a review,” Rev. Geophys. 43, RG2002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, A. V.

J. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, “Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a one year preliminary study,” Atmos. Res. 66, 261–272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, J. A.

J. A. Parrish, K. F. Jaenicke, and R. R. Anderson, “Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 187–191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Payer, H. D.

G. Seckmeyer and H. D. Payer, “A new sunlight simulator for ecological research on plants,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 21, 175–181 (1993).

Pencina, M. J.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Burgos, A.

D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piedehierro, A.

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pincuo, N.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

Pissulla, D.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponsonby, A. L.

R. M. Lucas and A. L. Ponsonby, “Ultraviolet radiation and health: friend and foe,” Med. J. Australia 177, 594–598 (2002).

Raman, S.

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Redondas, A.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichrath, J.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rembges, D.

Ren, P. B. C.

P. B. C. Ren, F. Sigernes, and Y. Gjessing, “Ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in Tibet: preliminary results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1359–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rienecker, M. M.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Roy, C.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Roy, C. R.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

Sabburg, J.

J. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, “Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a one year preliminary study,” Atmos. Res. 66, 261–272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Sabburg and J. Wong, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: a one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

Schubert, S. D.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Seckmeyer, G.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, “Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5321–5331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer and H. D. Payer, “A new sunlight simulator for ecological research on plants,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 21, 175–181 (1993).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

Serrano, A.

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siani, A.-M.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Sigernes, F.

P. B. C. Ren, F. Sigernes, and Y. Gjessing, “Ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in Tibet: preliminary results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1359–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simic, S.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Slaper, H.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Slusser, J.

Slusser, J. R.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sneep, M.

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

Solomon, K. R.

K. R. Solomon, “Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment,” Atmos. Ocean 46, 185–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ssenyonga, T.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K. H.

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K. S. J. J.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steigen, A.

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stockwell, W. R.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Streicher, J. J.

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suarez, M. J.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Taalas, P.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, L.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Tax, R.

Teklemariam, T.

T. Teklemariam and T. J. Blake, “Effects of UVB preconditioning on heat tolerance of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.),” Environ. Exp. Bot. 50, 169–182 (2003).

Teramura, A. H.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tevini, M.

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Todling, R.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

Tomlinson, D. W.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

Toomey, S.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

Topaloglou, C.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torres, C.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S.-C.

Tsoja, W.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, B.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Vasan, R. S.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veefkind, J. P.

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vilaplana, J. M.

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. J.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Webb, A. R.

Wellemeyer, C. W.

P. K. Bhartia and C. W. Wellemeyer, “OMI–TOMS-V8 total O3 algorithm,” in Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document: OMI Ozone Products, Vol. 2 (ATBD-OMI-02, version 2.0 ed.), P. K. Bhartia, ed. (2002).

Werle, P.

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Wiscombe, W.

Wolf, M.

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolfran, E.

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J.

J. Sabburg and J. Wong, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: a one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zempila, M.

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zempila, M. M.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zerefos, C. S.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

G. Horneck, “Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance, life science: planetary protection; ozone and UVB radiation effects,” Adv. Space Res. 16, 1983–1994 (2001).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Res.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pincuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

M. Anton, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C. Chiu, and F. Olmo, “Experimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depth,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11723–11732 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, D. Balis, N. Kouremeti, M. Zempila, A. Arola, E. Giannakaki, V. Amiridis, and A. Kazantzidis, “Spatial and temporal UV irradiance and aerosol variability within the area of an OMI satellite pixel,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4593–4601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, G. Bernhard, R. Erb, A. Albold, H. Jager, and W. R. Stockwell, “New maximum UV irradiance levels observed in central Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 2971–2976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, and P. Nima, “Ground-based measurements and modeling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Ocean

K. R. Solomon, “Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment,” Atmos. Ocean 46, 185–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res.

D. Mateos, J. Bilbao, A. de Miguel, and A. Pérez-Burgos, “Dependence of ultraviolet (erythemal and total) radiation and CMF values on total and low cloud covers in central Spain,” Atmos. Res. 98, 21–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, “Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a one year preliminary study,” Atmos. Res. 66, 261–272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Anton, A. Piedehierro, L. Alados-Arboledas, E. Wolfran, and F. Olmo, “Extreme ultraviolet index due to broken clouds at a mid-latitude site, Granada (southeastern Spain),” Atmos. Res. 118, 10–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

T. J. Wang, M. J. Pencina, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, E. Ingelsson, K. Lanier, E. J. Benjamin, R. B. D’Agostino, M. Wolf, and R. S. Vasan, “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 117, 503–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Ind. Eng.

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” Comput. Ind. Eng. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Environ. Exp. Bot.

T. Teklemariam and T. J. Blake, “Effects of UVB preconditioning on heat tolerance of cucumber (cucumis sativus l.),” Environ. Exp. Bot. 50, 169–182 (2003).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

P. B. C. Ren, F. Sigernes, and Y. Gjessing, “Ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in Tibet: preliminary results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1359–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lindfors and A. Arola, “On the wavelength-dependent attenuation of UV radiation by clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L05806 (2007).

J. Sabburg and J. Wong, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: a one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Immunol. Cell Biol.

G. J. Clydesdale, G. W. Dandie, and H. K. Muller, “Ultraviolet light-induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects,” Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 547–568 (2001).

Int. J. Remote Sens.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU–UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Okullo, B. Hamre, Ø. Frette, K. S. J. J. Stamnes, T. Ssenyonga, J. Høkedal, K. Stamnes, and A. Steigen, “Validation of MERIS water quality products in Murchison bay, Lake Victoria–preliminary results,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32, 5541–5563 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim.

M. M. Rienecker, M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, and A. da Silva, “MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications.” J. Clim. 24, 3624–3648 (2011).

J. Geophys. Res.

M. Kroon, J. P. Veefkind, M. Sneep, R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, and P. F. Levelt, “Comparing OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column data,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, 16S28 (2008).

M. Anton, M. Lopez, J. M. Vilaplana, M. Kroon, R. McPeters, M. Banon, and A. Serrano, “OMI–TOMS and OMI–DOAS total ozone column using five brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D14307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Balis, M. Kroon, M. E. Koukouli, E. J. Brinksma, G. Labow, J. P. Veefkind, and R. D. McPeters, “Validation of ozone monitoring instrument total ozone column measurements using brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Estupiñán, S. Raman, G. H. Crescenti, J. J. Streicher, and W. F. Barnard, “Effects of clouds and haze on UV-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16807–16816 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, “Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser, and J. Davis, “Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Molina and M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185 to 350  nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of Earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

M. M. Caldwell, L. Björn, J. Bornman, S. Flint, G. Kulandaivelu, A. H. Teramura, and M. Tevini, “Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 46, 40–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol.

G. Seckmeyer and H. D. Payer, “A new sunlight simulator for ecological research on plants,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 21, 175–181 (1993).

Lancet

J. M. Norris, “Can the sunshine vitamin shed light on type 1 diabetes,” Lancet 358, 1476–1478 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. J. Australia

R. M. Lucas and A. L. Ponsonby, “Ultraviolet radiation and health: friend and foe,” Med. J. Australia 177, 594–598 (2002).

Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation,” Mutat. Res-Fund. Mol. M. 422, 7–14 (1998).

Nature

F. M. Mims, “Cumulus clouds and UV-B,” Nature 371, 291 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. Dasilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobio. S.

S. Mouret, A. Forestier, and T. Douki, “The specificity of UVA-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes,” Photochem. Photobio. S. 11, 155–162 (2012).

Photochem. Photobiol.

J. A. Parrish, K. F. Jaenicke, and R. R. Anderson, “Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 187–191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. J. L’Hirondelle and W. D. Binder, “Temperature stress tolerance of conifer seedlings after exposure to UV-B radiation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 1094–1100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, M. Glandorf, D. Henriques, B. Johnsen, A. Webb, A.-M. Siani, A. Bais, B. Kjeldstad, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, B. Gardiner, P. Kirsch, T. Koskela, J. Kaurola, B. Uhlmann, H. Slaper, P. den Outer, M. Janouch, P. Werle, J. Grobner, B. Mayer, A. de la Casiniere, S. Simic, and F. Carvalho, “Variability of UV irradiance in Europe,” Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 172–179 (2008).

Phys. Med. Biol.

B. L. Diffey, “Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 299–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. A. Eide, K. H. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, F. J. Schmidlin, R. O. Olsen, S. C. Tsay, and J. J. Stamnes, “Observations of UV doses and ozone amounts near New York City using NILU–UV instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5156, 179–187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. Juzeniene, P. Brekke, A. Dahlback, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Reichrath, K. Moan, M. F. Holick, F. Michael, W. B. Grant, and J. Moan, “Solar radiation and human health,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 066701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys.

J. Calbó, D. Pagès, and J. A. González, “Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: a review,” Rev. Geophys. 43, RG2002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

WMO, “Report of the WMO meeting of experts on UV-B measurements, data, quality and standardization of UV indices, Switzerland, 25-28 July 1994,” (WMO TD No. 625). 95, UV Monitoring and Assessment Program Panel, WHO Rep. (1994).

WHO, “Global solar UV index: A practical guide,” (World Health Organization, 2002).

“U. S. standard atmosphere 1976” (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977).

UNEP, “Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interaction with climate change: 2010 assessment,” Nairobi, 278, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2010).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiance, part 1: spectral instruments,”Global Atmospheric Watch, , 2001.

World Metereological Organization (WMO), “GAW report, No.  190. Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation part 3: multi-channel filter instruments,” (WMO, 2010), p. 18.

T. N. Aalerud and B. Johnsen, “The Norwegian UV monitoring network. period 1995/96 to 2004,” , (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, 2006).

P. K. Bhartia and C. W. Wellemeyer, “OMI–TOMS-V8 total O3 algorithm,” in Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document: OMI Ozone Products, Vol. 2 (ATBD-OMI-02, version 2.0 ed.), P. K. Bhartia, ed. (2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time series of relative sensitivity for each of the channels 1–5 for the instrument at Linzhi (serial number 128).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured cosine responses for channels with central wavelengths at 305, 312, 320, 340, and 380 nm for NILU–UV112 (direct beam). (b) Simulated irradiance uncertainties for a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere, a site altitude of 4000 m, and a surface albedo of 5%. The cosine responses in (a) were used in the calculations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Geographical positions of the four study sites on the TP.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements in Lhasa on a cloud-free day (Day 191 of 2008) and a cloud-covered day (Day 193 of 2008). (a) UVI, (b) RMF, and (c) TOC.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time series of measurements on a cloud-free day in Lhasa in summer and at four sites in winter. (a) UVI, (b) RMF, and (c) TOC.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time series of the difference between the TOC values derived from measurements by NILU–UV127, deployed in Lhasa, and that derived from measurements by OMI.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Time series of (a) monthly mean noon-hour UVI, (b) RMF, and (c) TOC for the whole measurement period at the four study sites.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Frequency distribution of the UVI at the four study sites on the TP.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Time series of (a) UVI, (b) RMF, and (c) TOC for Day 147 of 2009 in Tingri.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Geographical Positions and Measurement Periods for the Four Study Sitesa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Mean TOC Values Derived from Measurements by NILU-UV Instruments (NIL) and from Measurements by OMI in 2009a

Tables Icon

Table 3. Measurement and Simulation Data for the Four Study Sites (July 11, 2009)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Dacc=0A(λ)F(λ)dλ=λ=0AλFλΔλ,
Dappr=i=15aiVi,
UVI=40×CIEweightedUVdose rate inWm2
RMF=Fmeas(Δλ,θ)Fclear(Δλ,θ).
N(θ,TOC)=Fi(θ,TOC)Fj(θ,TOC),

Metrics