Abstract

Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics systems rely on several wavefront sensors, which measure the incoming turbulent phase along several field directions to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent phase. In this paper, we explore an alternative wavefront sensing approach that attempts to directly measure the turbulent phase present at a particular height in the atmosphere: a layer-oriented cross-correlating Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). In an experiment at the Dunn Solar Telescope, we built a prototype layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS system conjugated to two separate atmospheric heights. We present the data obtained in the observations and complement these with ray-tracing computations to achieve a better understanding of the instrument’s performance and limitations. The results obtained in this study strongly indicate that a layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS is not a practical design to measure the wavefront at a high layer in the atmosphere.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 1–92 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Marino, “Expected performance of solar adaptive optics in large-aperture solar telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 51, 101709 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).
  6. D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. L. Louarn and M. Tallon, “Analysis of modes and behavior of a multiconjugate adaptive optics system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 912–925 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527–2538 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kellerer, “Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5743–5751 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).
  11. E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).
  14. C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).
  16. R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. R. Goode and W. Cao, “The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844403 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J. Marino, “Expected performance of solar adaptive optics in large-aperture solar telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 51, 101709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Kellerer, “Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5743–5751 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Goode and W. Cao, “The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 1–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

2003 (1)

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527–2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

Arcidiacono, C.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balthasar, H.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barden, S.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berkefeld, T.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulau, S.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Caligari, P.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

P. R. Goode and W. Cao, “The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carbillet, M.

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collados, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

Craig, S.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Denker, C.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diolaiti, E.

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ditsler, J.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Egner, S. E.

S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falomo, R.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

Farinato, J.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

Fusco, T.

Gaessler, W.

S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goode, P. R.

P. R. Goode and W. Cao, “The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, B.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gullieuszik, M.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

Halbgewachs, C.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, E.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hegwer, S.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

Heidecke, F.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, T. M.

S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, A.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, R.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keil, S. L.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kellerer, A.

Klvana, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneer, F.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lagg, A.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

Louarn, M. L.

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).

Marino, J.

J. Marino, “Expected performance of solar adaptive optics in large-aperture solar telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 51, 101709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 1–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McBride, W.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. P.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

Moretti, A.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

Mugnier, L. M.

Piotto, G.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

Popow, E.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

Richards, K.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

Rimmele, T.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

Rimmele, T. R.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 1–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roche, J.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

Rousset, G.

Schmidt, D.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimko, S.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sobotka, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solanki, S.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soltau, D.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strassmeier, K.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

Tordi, M.

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tritschler, A.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

Vérinaud, C.

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vernet-Viard, E.

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, R.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

von der Lühe, O.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldmann, T.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warner, M.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woeger, F.

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wöger, F.

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Living Rev. Solar Phys. (1)

T. R. Rimmele and J. Marino, “Solar adaptive optics,” Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, 1–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Marino, “Expected performance of solar adaptive optics in large-aperture solar telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 51, 101709 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

T. R. Rimmele, F. Woeger, J. Marino, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, D. Schmidt, and T. Waldmann, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Lühe, “Multi-conjugate solar adaptive optics with the VTT and GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, J. Roche, S. Hegwer, and A. Tritschler, “Progress with solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics at NSO,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627206 (2006).

D. Schmidt, T. Berkefeld, F. Heidecke, O. von der Lühe, and D. Soltau, “Testbed for the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390X (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 1076–1087 (2000).

C. Vérinaud, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carbillet, E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, E. Vernet-Viard, and S. Esposito, “Layer oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems: performance analysis by numerical simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 524–535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, A. Moretti, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, R. Falomo, M. Gullieuszik, and G. Piotto, “An update of the on-sky performance of the layer-oriented wavefront sensor for MAD,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77363D (2010).

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, C. Denker, S. Solanki, H. Balthasar, T. Berkefeld, P. Caligari, M. Collados, C. Halbgewachs, F. Heidecke, A. Hofmann, M. Klvana, F. Kneer, A. Lagg, E. Popow, D. Schmidt, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, and K. Strassmeier, “GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77330K (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Goode and W. Cao, “The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844403 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. McMullin, T. R. Rimmele, S. L. Keil, M. Warner, S. Barden, S. Bulau, S. Craig, B. Goodrich, E. Hansen, S. Hegwer, R. Hubbard, W. McBride, S. Shimko, F. Wöger, and J. Ditsler, “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 844407 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

S. E. Egner, W. Gaessler, T. M. Herbst, and R. Ragazzoni, “A closed loop layer-oriented adaptive optics test bed: applications to ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1114–1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic optical layout of a layer-oriented SHWFS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram showing the lenslet array of a layer oriented SHWFS projected on the conjugated layer. The two light cones represent light covering a certain FOV for two different sub-apertures. The sub-aperture on the left will display vignetting because not all field directions enter the telescope aperture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical layout of the layer-oriented SHWFS conjugated to a 5 km height. The diagram is schematic and not to scale. All values are in units of millimeter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sub-aperture images produced by a layer-oriented extended source SHWFS conjugated to a height of 5 km, captured at the DST. The FOV inside the sub-apertures is 40. Top right corner shows one of the sub-aperture images in more detail.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sub-aperture images produced by a layer-oriented extended source SHWFS conjugated to a height of 10 km, captured at the DST. The FOV inside the sub-apertures is 33. Top right corner shows one of the sub-aperture images in more detail.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Sub-aperture images produced by ray tracing of an extended source SHWFS conjugated to a height of 5 km in the DST. The position of the lenslet array is overlayed in red. The FOV of the sub-aperture images is 40.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Sub-aperture images produced by ray tracing of an extended source SHWFS conjugated to a height of 10 km in the DST. The position of the lenslet array is overlayed in red. The FOV of the sub-aperture images is 33.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS sub-aperture images, with system conjugated to a height of 5 km and a 4 m aperture ATST. The position of the lenslet array is overlayed in red. The FOV of the sub-aperture images is 80.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Relative pupil image position versus sub-aperture FOV for three different telescopes and two conjugated heights. The relative position is given as a fraction of the focal length of the lenslet array.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Size of pupil image versus sub-aperture FOV for three different telescopes and two conjugated heights. The grey dotted horizontal line indicates the size of the sub-aperture images (400 μm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Focal Lengths of Lenses L1, L2, and Lenslet (from Fig. 1) Required by Different FOV Sizes Using the DST as the Telescopea

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FOV=Λ·nlenslet·Dlenslet2flenslet,

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