Abstract

This work presents a novel approach that integrates a shallow water semi-analytical (SSA) model and a genetic algorithm (GA) to retrieve water column inherent optical properties (IOPs) and identify bottom types simultaneously from measurement of subsurface remote sensing reflectance. This GA–SSA approach is designed based on the assumption that each pixel is homogeneous with regard to the bottom type when viewed at small (centimeter) scales, and it is validated against a synthetic data set (N=11,250) that consists of five types of bottom, three levels of bottom depth, 15 concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and a wide range of modeled IOP variations in clear and optically complex waters representing the coral reef environment. The results indicate that the GA–SSA approach is accurate and robust in the retrieval of IOPs and its success rate in identifying the real bottom type is limited by the level of Chl-a and bottom depth. When a pixel is homogeneous at a small scale, the maximum allowable concentrations for GA–SSA to perfectly identify all the five bottom types are 0.7mg/m3 at 5 m bottom depth, 0.2mg/m3 at 10 m, and 0.07mg/m3 at 15 m. A promising 80% recognition rate of the benthic community is possible with GA–SSA when an underwater hyperspectral imager is deployed to examine the health status of coral reefs in a clean (Chl-a<1mg/m3) and shallow (bottom depth<10m) environment. Further study that collects field data for direct validation is required to ensure that the GA–SSA approach is also applicable in real coral reef regions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

E. J. Botha, V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, A. G. Dekker, and S. Sagar, “Increased spectral resolution enhances coral detection under varying water conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 247–261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Deriving ocean color products using neural networks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 78–99 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, and D. Dessailly, “Retrieval of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient K-d(lambda) in open and coastal ocean waters using a neural network inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C10023 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and sensor limitations in optical remote sensing of coral reefs: implications for monitoring and sensor design,” Remote Sens. 4, 271–302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

2009 (3)

J. Hedley, C. Roelfsema, and S. R. Phinn, “Efficient radiative transfer model inversion for remote sensing applications,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2527–2532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

M. P. Lesser and C. D. Mobley, “Bathymetry, water optical properties, and benthic classification of coral reefs using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery,” Coral Reef 26, 819–829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Lee, “The pushbroom hyperspectral imager: ISIS and FUSHI,” Instruments Today 161(4), 12–21 (2007), in Chinese.

D. R. Mishra, S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, M. Lawson, and R. Perk, “Enhancing the detection and classification of coral reef and associated benthic habitats: a hyperspectral remote sensing approach,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 112, C08014 (2007).

W. M. Klonowski, P. R. C. S. Fearns, and M. J. Lynch, “Retrieving key benthic cover types and bathymetry from hyperspectral imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, C. C. Liu, and C. G. Wen, “Integrating semianalytical and genetic algorithms to retrieve the constituents of water bodies from remote sensing of ocean color,” Opt. Express 15, 252–265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, “Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner,” J. Oceanogr. 60, 519–530 (2004).

P. J. Mumby, W. Skirving, A. E. Strong, J. T. Hardy, E. F. LeDrew, E. J. Hochberg, R. P. Stumpf, and L. T. David, “Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48, 219–228 (2004).

J. D. Hedley, P. J. Mumby, K. E. Joyce, and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral unmixing of coral reef benthos under ideal conditions,” Coral Reef 23, 60–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Caribbean,” Coral Reef 23, 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andrefouet, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 159–173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Capabilities of remote sensors to classify coral, algae, and sand as pure and mixed spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 174–189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Zhan, Z. P. Lee, P. Shi, C. Q. Chen, and K. L. Carder, “Retrieval of water optical properties for optically deep waters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1123–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kutser, A. G. Dekker, and W. Skirving, “Modeling spectral discrimination of Great Barrier Reef benthic communities by remote sensing instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

T. R. McClanahan, “The near future of coral reefs,” Environ. Conserv. 29, 460–483 (2002).

H. Yamano, M. Tamura, Y. Kunii, and M. Hidaka, “Hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer simulation as a tool for monitoring coral reef health,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 36, 4–13 (2002).

H. Holden and E. LeDrew, “Measuring and modeling water column effects on hyperspectral reflectance in a coral reef environment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 300–308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

S. Andrefouet, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. J. Hochberg, C. M. Hu, and K. L. Carder, “Change detection in shallow coral reef environments using Landsat 7 ETM+ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 150–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Lubin, W. Li, P. Dustan, C. H. Mazel, and K. Stamnes, “Spectral signatures of coral reefs: features from space,” Remote Sens. Environ. 75, 127–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Knowlton, “The future of coral reefs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 5419–5425 (2001).

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reef 19, 164–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Holden and E. LeDrew, “Spectral discrimination of healthy and non-healthy corals based on cluster analysis, principal components analysis, and derivative spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 217–224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption-coefficients of natural phytoplankton—analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of the water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

S. M. Adler-Golden, P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, M. W. Matthew, and D. Gorodetzky, “Remote bathymetry of the littoral zone from AVIRIS, LASH, and QuickBird imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 337–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

S. M. Adler-Golden, P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, M. W. Matthew, and D. Gorodetzky, “Remote bathymetry of the littoral zone from AVIRIS, LASH, and QuickBird imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 337–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S.

I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Deriving ocean color products using neural networks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 78–99 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Albert, A.

Andrefouet, S.

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andrefouet, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 159–173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Andrefouet, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. J. Hochberg, C. M. Hu, and K. L. Carder, “Change detection in shallow coral reef environments using Landsat 7 ETM+ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 150–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anstee, J.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

Anstee, J. M.

E. J. Botha, V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, A. G. Dekker, and S. Sagar, “Increased spectral resolution enhances coral detection under varying water conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 247–261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Atkinson, M. J.

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andrefouet, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 159–173 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Capabilities of remote sensors to classify coral, algae, and sand as pure and mixed spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 174–189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reef 19, 164–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption-coefficients of natural phytoplankton—analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baird, A. H.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bellwood, D. R.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

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T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
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A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

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J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
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J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
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T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
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C. Jamet, H. Loisel, and D. Dessailly, “Retrieval of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient K-d(lambda) in open and coastal ocean waters using a neural network inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C10023 (2012).
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T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
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W. M. Klonowski, P. R. C. S. Fearns, and M. J. Lynch, “Retrieving key benthic cover types and bathymetry from hyperspectral imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011505 (2007).
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Kunii, Y.

H. Yamano, M. Tamura, Y. Kunii, and M. Hidaka, “Hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer simulation as a tool for monitoring coral reef health,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 36, 4–13 (2002).

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P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
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H. Holden and E. LeDrew, “Spectral discrimination of healthy and non-healthy corals based on cluster analysis, principal components analysis, and derivative spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 217–224 (1998).
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P. J. Mumby, W. Skirving, A. E. Strong, J. T. Hardy, E. F. LeDrew, E. J. Hochberg, R. P. Stumpf, and L. T. David, “Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48, 219–228 (2004).

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Lee, Z. P.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

H. G. Zhan, Z. P. Lee, P. Shi, C. Q. Chen, and K. L. Carder, “Retrieval of water optical properties for optically deep waters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1123–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leis, J. M.

P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lesser, M. P.

M. P. Lesser and C. D. Mobley, “Bathymetry, water optical properties, and benthic classification of coral reefs using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery,” Coral Reef 26, 819–829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

D. Lubin, W. Li, P. Dustan, C. H. Mazel, and K. Stamnes, “Spectral signatures of coral reefs: features from space,” Remote Sens. Environ. 75, 127–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

Loisel, H.

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, and D. Dessailly, “Retrieval of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient K-d(lambda) in open and coastal ocean waters using a neural network inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, C10023 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Louchard, E. M.

Lough, J. M.

P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lubin, D.

D. Lubin, W. Li, P. Dustan, C. H. Mazel, and K. Stamnes, “Spectral signatures of coral reefs: features from space,” Remote Sens. Environ. 75, 127–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, M.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

Lynch, M. J.

W. M. Klonowski, P. R. C. S. Fearns, and M. J. Lynch, “Retrieving key benthic cover types and bathymetry from hyperspectral imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, M.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

Malthus, T. J.

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Caribbean,” Coral Reef 23, 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of the water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, P.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

S. M. Adler-Golden, P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, M. W. Matthew, and D. Gorodetzky, “Remote bathymetry of the littoral zone from AVIRIS, LASH, and QuickBird imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 337–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazel, C. H.

D. Lubin, W. Li, P. Dustan, C. H. Mazel, and K. Stamnes, “Spectral signatures of coral reefs: features from space,” Remote Sens. Environ. 75, 127–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McArdle, D.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McClanahan, T. R.

T. R. McClanahan, “The near future of coral reefs,” Environ. Conserv. 29, 460–483 (2002).

McClenachan, L.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, D. R.

D. R. Mishra, S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, M. Lawson, and R. Perk, “Enhancing the detection and classification of coral reef and associated benthic habitats: a hyperspectral remote sensing approach,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 112, C08014 (2007).

Mobley, C.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

Mobley, C. D.

Montes, M. J.

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption-coefficients of natural phytoplankton—analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
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S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of the water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Deriving ocean color products using neural networks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 78–99 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Karger, F. E.

S. Andrefouet, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. J. Hochberg, C. M. Hu, and K. L. Carder, “Change detection in shallow coral reef environments using Landsat 7 ETM+ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 78, 150–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mumby, P. J.

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and sensor limitations in optical remote sensing of coral reefs: implications for monitoring and sensor design,” Remote Sens. 4, 271–302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Mumby, W. Skirving, A. E. Strong, J. T. Hardy, E. F. LeDrew, E. J. Hochberg, R. P. Stumpf, and L. T. David, “Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48, 219–228 (2004).

J. D. Hedley, P. J. Mumby, K. E. Joyce, and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral unmixing of coral reef benthos under ideal conditions,” Coral Reef 23, 60–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munday, P. L.

P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narumalani, S.

D. R. Mishra, S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, M. Lawson, and R. Perk, “Enhancing the detection and classification of coral reef and associated benthic habitats: a hyperspectral remote sensing approach,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 112, C08014 (2007).

Newman, M. J. H.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, M.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, “Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner,” J. Oceanogr. 60, 519–530 (2004).

Palumbi, S. R.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, J. M.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paredes, G.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paris, C. B.

P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perk, R.

D. R. Mishra, S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, M. Lawson, and R. Perk, “Enhancing the detection and classification of coral reef and associated benthic habitats: a hyperspectral remote sensing approach,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 112, C08014 (2007).

Phinn, S. R.

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and sensor limitations in optical remote sensing of coral reefs: implications for monitoring and sensor design,” Remote Sens. 4, 271–302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hedley, C. Roelfsema, and S. R. Phinn, “Efficient radiative transfer model inversion for remote sensing applications,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2527–2532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Hedley, P. J. Mumby, K. E. Joyce, and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral unmixing of coral reef benthos under ideal conditions,” Coral Reef 23, 60–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Place, C. J.

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Caribbean,” Coral Reef 23, 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reid, R. P.

Roelfsema, C.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, V. E. Brando, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. P. Lee, M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9, 396–425 (2011).

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hedley, C. Roelfsema, and S. R. Phinn, “Efficient radiative transfer model inversion for remote sensing applications,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2527–2532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roelfsema, C. M.

J. D. Hedley, C. M. Roelfsema, S. R. Phinn, and P. J. Mumby, “Environmental and sensor limitations in optical remote sensing of coral reefs: implications for monitoring and sensor design,” Remote Sens. 4, 271–302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, B.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roughgarden, J.

T. P. Hughes, A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden, “Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs,” Science 301, 929–933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, D.

D. R. Mishra, S. Narumalani, D. Rundquist, M. Lawson, and R. Perk, “Enhancing the detection and classification of coral reef and associated benthic habitats: a hyperspectral remote sensing approach,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 112, C08014 (2007).

Sagar, S.

E. J. Botha, V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, A. G. Dekker, and S. Sagar, “Increased spectral resolution enhances coral detection under varying water conditions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 247–261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sala, E.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, H.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, “Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner,” J. Oceanogr. 60, 519–530 (2004).

Shi, P.

H. G. Zhan, Z. P. Lee, P. Shi, C. Q. Chen, and K. L. Carder, “Retrieval of water optical properties for optically deep waters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1123–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skirving, W.

P. J. Mumby, W. Skirving, A. E. Strong, J. T. Hardy, E. F. LeDrew, E. J. Hochberg, R. P. Stumpf, and L. T. David, “Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48, 219–228 (2004).

T. Kutser, A. G. Dekker, and W. Skirving, “Modeling spectral discrimination of Great Barrier Reef benthic communities by remote sensing instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

D. Lubin, W. Li, P. Dustan, C. H. Mazel, and K. Stamnes, “Spectral signatures of coral reefs: features from space,” Remote Sens. Environ. 75, 127–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Strong, A. E.

P. J. Mumby, W. Skirving, A. E. Strong, J. T. Hardy, E. F. LeDrew, E. J. Hochberg, R. P. Stumpf, and L. T. David, “Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48, 219–228 (2004).

Stumpf, R. P.

P. J. Mumby, W. Skirving, A. E. Strong, J. T. Hardy, E. F. LeDrew, E. J. Hochberg, R. P. Stumpf, and L. T. David, “Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48, 219–228 (2004).

Sundman, L. K.

Tamura, M.

H. Yamano, M. Tamura, Y. Kunii, and M. Hidaka, “Hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer simulation as a tool for monitoring coral reef health,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 36, 4–13 (2002).

Tanaka, A.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, “Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner,” J. Oceanogr. 60, 519–530 (2004).

Warner, R. R.

J. M. Pandolfi, R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems,” Science 301, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. G.

Wettle, M.

V. E. Brando, J. M. Anstee, M. Wettle, A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, and C. Roelfsema, “A physics based retrieval and quality assessment of bathymetry from suboptimal hyperspectral data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 755–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamano, H.

H. Yamano, M. Tamura, Y. Kunii, and M. Hidaka, “Hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer simulation as a tool for monitoring coral reef health,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 36, 4–13 (2002).

Zhan, H. G.

H. G. Zhan, Z. P. Lee, P. Shi, C. Q. Chen, and K. L. Carder, “Retrieval of water optical properties for optically deep waters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1123–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Coral Reef (5)

P. L. Munday, J. M. Leis, J. M. Lough, C. B. Paris, M. J. Kingsford, M. L. Berumen, and J. Lambrechts, “Climate change and coral reef connectivity,” Coral Reef 28, 379–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lesser and C. D. Mobley, “Bathymetry, water optical properties, and benthic classification of coral reefs using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery,” Coral Reef 26, 819–829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reef 19, 164–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Karpouzli, T. J. Malthus, and C. J. Place, “Hyperspectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities in the western Caribbean,” Coral Reef 23, 141–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Hedley, P. J. Mumby, K. E. Joyce, and S. R. Phinn, “Spectral unmixing of coral reef benthos under ideal conditions,” Coral Reef 23, 60–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Conserv. (1)

T. R. McClanahan, “The near future of coral reefs,” Environ. Conserv. 29, 460–483 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

S. M. Adler-Golden, P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, M. W. Matthew, and D. Gorodetzky, “Remote bathymetry of the littoral zone from AVIRIS, LASH, and QuickBird imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 337–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Zhan, Z. P. Lee, P. Shi, C. Q. Chen, and K. L. Carder, “Retrieval of water optical properties for optically deep waters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1123–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Instruments Today (1)

L. J. Lee, “The pushbroom hyperspectral imager: ISIS and FUSHI,” Instruments Today 161(4), 12–21 (2007), in Chinese.

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

H. Holden and E. LedrewLeDrew, “Hyperspectral identification of coral reef features,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 2545–2563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

W. M. Klonowski, P. R. C. S. Fearns, and M. J. Lynch, “Retrieving key benthic cover types and bathymetry from hyperspectral imagery,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 1, 011505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 11639–11651 (2001).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photo on the left shows the design of the ITRC-UHI, the photo in the upper right shows how the UHI is mounted on a towed V-Fin, and the lower right photo was taken during a field test.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Five types of substrate irradiance reflectance used in this study.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationships between a range of Chl-a and their simulated (a) adg(440) and (b) bbp(550) values with the consideration of uncertainties in IOP measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

HydroLight-simulated rrs for five types of bottom and at two levels of water depth (Chl-a=0.03mg/m3).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

HydroLight-synthesized rrs with bio-optical uncertainties for coral sand (dotted line) and brown algae (solid line) at 1mg/m3 Chl-a and 5 m water depth.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illustration and example of the GA–SSA procedure.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparisons between GA–SSA-derived IOPs and known IOPs from the synthetic data set: (a) total absorption coefficient at 440 nm and (b) total backscattering coefficient at 550 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Performance of the GA–SSA in retrieving shallow water IOPs: relationships between water column Chl-a concentration (main y axis) and bottom depth (sub-y axis).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Performance of the GA–SSA in classifying bottom types: (a) bottom depth=5m, (b) bottom depth=10m, (c) bottom depth=15m, and (d) MACs at different bottom depths.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Recommended performance ranges (shaded boxes) for the GA–SSA in both IOP retrieval (IER) and bottom recognition (BRR).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Results of comparing 3750 ρ(550) retrievals in at 10 m bottom depth to the true ρ(550) of the five test bottom types.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Selected Bottom Types and their Representative Spectrum Used in the Synthetic Data Set

Tables Icon

Table 2. Dynamic Ranges of the Eight DVs in the BOM

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r^rs(λ)=rrsdp(λ)(1exp{[1cos(θw)+DuC(λ)]α(λ)H})+ρ(λ)πexp{[1cos(θw)+DuB(λ)]α(λ)H},
α(λ)=a(λ)+bb(λ),
aph(λ)=[a0(λ)+a1(λ)·ln(aph(440))]aph(440),
Xi=Riaph(440),
α(λ)=aw(λ)+bbw(λ)+aph(λ)+adg(λ)+bbp(λ)=aw(λ)+bbw(λ)+[a0(λ)+a1(λ)·ln(aph(440))]aph(440)+Rdgaph(440)exp[S(λ440)]+Rpaph(440)(550/λ)y.
u(λ)=[bbw(λ)+bbp(λ)]/α(λ).
rrsdp(λ)=[0.084+u(λ)]u(λ),
DuC(λ)=1.03[1+2.4u(λ)]0.5,
DuB(λ)=1.04[1+5.4u(λ)]0.5.
aph(440)=0.05[Chl-a]0.626.
ad(440)=[0.1+0.5R1aph(440)0.05+aph(440)]aph(440)
ag(440)=[0.3+5.7R2aph(440)0.02+aph(440)]aph(440),
bph(550)=R3[Chl-a]0.57aph(550)
bd(550)=R4[Chl-a]0.766,
ρrefN(λ)=ρref(λ)/ρref(550)
ρ(λ)=ρ(550)ρrefN(λ),
OBJ1=λ1λn[r^rs(λi)rrs(λi)]2n,
OBJ2=λ1λn[ρ(550)ρrefN(λ)ρref(λi)]2n.
fitness=(OBJ1+w×OBJ2),
ε=10RMSE1,
BRRcj,hi=g0.03,hi/gcj,hi,
IERcj=εcj/ε5,

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