Abstract

We present a low-cost, reconfigurable, parallel optofluidic switch that exploits the optical and magnetic properties of water-based ferrofluid. Each switch is composed of an integrated waveguide orthogonally crossing a microfluidic channel containing high-index oil and a ferrofluid plug. The switch is turned ON or OFF by movement of the ferrofluid plug. In contrast to conventional integrated switches, ferrofluid plugs act as switching mechanisms that are portable and reconfigurable. Switches are demonstrated in parallel geometries for single and multimode waveguides. Possible applications include optofluidic memory, multiplexed sensing for lab-on-chip, or frequency-encoded laser excitation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Odenbach, “Ferrofluids-magnetically controlled suspensions,” Colloids Surf. A 217, 171–178 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. De Volder and D. Reynaerts, “Development of a hybrid ferrofluid seal technology for miniature pneumatic and hydraulic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A 152, 234–240 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Hartshorne, C. J. Backhouse, and W. E. Lee, “Ferrofluid-based microchip pump and valve,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 592–600 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Assadsangabi, M. S. Mohamed Ali, and K. Takahataa, “Bidirectional actuation of ferrofluid using micropatterned planar coils assisted by bias magnetic fields,” Sens. Actuators A 173, 219–226 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Mao and H. Koser, “Towards ferrofluidics for μ-TAS and lab on-a-chip applications,” Nanotech. 17, S34–S47 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Sun, Y. C. Kwoka, and N. T. Nguyen, “A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction,” Lab Chip 7, 1012–1017 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Thorsen, S. J. Maerki, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic large-scale integration,” Science 298, 580–584 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, “Electroactive micro and nanowells for optofluidic storage,” Opt. Express 17, 21134–21148 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Groisman, M. Enzelberger, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic memory and control devices,” Science 300, 955–958 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. M. Squires and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidics: fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 977–1026 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Shui, J. C. T. Eijel, and A. van den Berg, “Multiphase flow in microfluidic systems—control and applications of droplets and interfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 35–49 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

B. Assadsangabi, M. S. Mohamed Ali, and K. Takahataa, “Bidirectional actuation of ferrofluid using micropatterned planar coils assisted by bias magnetic fields,” Sens. Actuators A 173, 219–226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. De Volder and D. Reynaerts, “Development of a hybrid ferrofluid seal technology for miniature pneumatic and hydraulic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A 152, 234–240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, “Electroactive micro and nanowells for optofluidic storage,” Opt. Express 17, 21134–21148 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

Y. Sun, Y. C. Kwoka, and N. T. Nguyen, “A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction,” Lab Chip 7, 1012–1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Shui, J. C. T. Eijel, and A. van den Berg, “Multiphase flow in microfluidic systems—control and applications of droplets and interfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 35–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mao and H. Koser, “Towards ferrofluidics for μ-TAS and lab on-a-chip applications,” Nanotech. 17, S34–S47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. M. Squires and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidics: fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Hartshorne, C. J. Backhouse, and W. E. Lee, “Ferrofluid-based microchip pump and valve,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 592–600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Odenbach, “Ferrofluids-magnetically controlled suspensions,” Colloids Surf. A 217, 171–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Groisman, M. Enzelberger, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic memory and control devices,” Science 300, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thorsen, S. J. Maerki, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic large-scale integration,” Science 298, 580–584 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Assadsangabi, B.

B. Assadsangabi, M. S. Mohamed Ali, and K. Takahataa, “Bidirectional actuation of ferrofluid using micropatterned planar coils assisted by bias magnetic fields,” Sens. Actuators A 173, 219–226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Backhouse, C. J.

H. Hartshorne, C. J. Backhouse, and W. E. Lee, “Ferrofluid-based microchip pump and valve,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 592–600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, N.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Besselink, G. A. J.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bragheri, F.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Candiani, A.

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chumanov, G.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cordovez, B.

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Volder, M.

M. De Volder and D. Reynaerts, “Development of a hybrid ferrofluid seal technology for miniature pneumatic and hydraulic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A 152, 234–240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, R.

Dongre, C.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eijel, J. C. T.

L. Shui, J. C. T. Eijel, and A. van den Berg, “Multiphase flow in microfluidic systems—control and applications of droplets and interfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 35–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enzelberger, M.

A. Groisman, M. Enzelberger, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic memory and control devices,” Science 300, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

Ferrara, L.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foo Lee, P. P.

K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.-M.

C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gitlin, I.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Groisman, A.

A. Groisman, M. Enzelberger, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic memory and control devices,” Science 300, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hardt, S.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartshorne, H.

H. Hartshorne, C. J. Backhouse, and W. E. Lee, “Ferrofluid-based microchip pump and valve,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 592–600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirsa, A. H.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoheisel, D.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, S.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, H. C.

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kornev, K. G.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koser, H.

L. Mao and H. Koser, “Towards ferrofluidics for μ-TAS and lab on-a-chip applications,” Nanotech. 17, S34–S47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, Y. C.

K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwoka, Y. C.

Y. Sun, Y. C. Kwoka, and N. T. Nguyen, “A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction,” Lab Chip 7, 1012–1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. E.

H. Hartshorne, C. J. Backhouse, and W. E. Lee, “Ferrofluid-based microchip pump and valve,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 592–600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levi, S.

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lok, K. S.

K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maerki, S. J.

T. Thorsen, S. J. Maerki, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic large-scale integration,” Science 298, 580–584 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malouin, B. A.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malynych, S. Z.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mao, L.

L. Mao and H. Koser, “Towards ferrofluidics for μ-TAS and lab on-a-chip applications,” Nanotech. 17, S34–S47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martinez Vazquez, R.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Vazquez, R.

Minzioni, P.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohamed Ali, M. S.

B. Assadsangabi, M. S. Mohamed Ali, and K. Takahataa, “Bidirectional actuation of ferrofluid using micropatterned planar coils assisted by bias magnetic fields,” Sens. Actuators A 173, 219–226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Molella, L. S.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. M. K.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ngamsom, B.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

Y. Sun, Y. C. Kwoka, and N. T. Nguyen, “A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction,” Lab Chip 7, 1012–1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N.-T.

K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Odenbach, S.

S. Odenbach, “Ferrofluids-magnetically controlled suspensions,” Colloids Surf. A 217, 171–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olles, J. D.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, “Electroactive micro and nanowells for optofluidic storage,” Opt. Express 17, 21134–21148 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Squires and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidics: fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Groisman, M. Enzelberger, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic memory and control devices,” Science 300, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Thorsen, S. J. Maerki, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic large-scale integration,” Science 298, 580–584 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramponic, R.

Reithmeier, E.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reynaerts, D.

M. De Volder and D. Reynaerts, “Development of a hybrid ferrofluid seal technology for miniature pneumatic and hydraulic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A 152, 234–240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rissing, L.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schultheis, T.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shui, L.

L. Shui, J. C. T. Eijel, and A. van den Berg, “Multiphase flow in microfluidic systems—control and applications of droplets and interfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 35–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Squires, T. M.

T. M. Squires and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidics: fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sterner, C.

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stroock, A. D.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. C. Kwoka, and N. T. Nguyen, “A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction,” Lab Chip 7, 1012–1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahataa, K.

B. Assadsangabi, M. S. Mohamed Ali, and K. Takahataa, “Bidirectional actuation of ferrofluid using micropatterned planar coils assisted by bias magnetic fields,” Sens. Actuators A 173, 219–226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thorsen, T.

T. Thorsen, S. J. Maerki, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic large-scale integration,” Science 298, 580–584 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tokarev, A.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-H.

C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, A.

L. Shui, J. C. T. Eijel, and A. van den Berg, “Multiphase flow in microfluidic systems—control and applications of droplets and interfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 35–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van den Vlekkert, H. H.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Weeghel, R.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponic, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Weerd, J.

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vishnubhatla, K. C.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, M. J.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watts, P.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. Y.

C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, P.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, W.

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-P.

C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.

L. Shui, J. C. T. Eijel, and A. van den Berg, “Multiphase flow in microfluidic systems—control and applications of droplets and interfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 35–49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A

S. Odenbach, “Ferrofluids-magnetically controlled suspensions,” Colloids Surf. A 217, 171–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis

C. Y. Wen, C.-P. Yeh, C.-H. Tsai, and L.-M. Fu, “Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field,” Electrophoresis 30, 4179–4186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly- (dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis 23, 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophotonics

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzioni, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Biophotonics 3, 234–243 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

S. Z. Malynych, A. Tokarev, S. Hudson, G. Chumanov, J. Ballato, and K. G. Kornev, “Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 1894–1897 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

Y. Sun, Y. C. Kwoka, and N. T. Nguyen, “A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction,” Lab Chip 7, 1012–1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Dongre, J. van Weerd, G. A. J. Besselink, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. van Weeghel, H. H. van den Vlekkert, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and M. Pollnau, “Modulation-frequency encoded multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an optofluidic chip,” Lab Chip 11, 679–683 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Chen, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip 11, 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach–Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10, 1167–1173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Schultheis, D. Hoheisel, W. Xiao, L. S. Molella, E. Reithmeier, L. Rissing, and S. Hardt, “Performance of an adaptive liquid microlens controlled by a microcoil actuator,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 13, 299–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, C. Yin, P. Xiao, X. Wang, J. Sun, S. Huang, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Microsecond-scale switching time of magnetic fluids due to the optical trapping effect in waveguide structure,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11, 781–785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanotech.

L. Mao and H. Koser, “Towards ferrofluidics for μ-TAS and lab on-a-chip applications,” Nanotech. 17, S34–S47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

S. Pissadakis, A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, C. Sterner, and W. Margulis, “Magnetofluidically tunable microstructured optical fiber grating devices,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

T. M. Squires and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidics: fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Groisman, M. Enzelberger, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic memory and control devices,” Science 300, 955–958 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Thorsen, S. J. Maerki, and S. R. Quake, “Microfluidic large-scale integration,” Science 298, 580–584 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

M. De Volder and D. Reynaerts, “Development of a hybrid ferrofluid seal technology for miniature pneumatic and hydraulic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A 152, 234–240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Assadsangabi, M. S. Mohamed Ali, and K. Takahataa, “Bidirectional actuation of ferrofluid using micropatterned planar coils assisted by bias magnetic fields,” Sens. Actuators A 173, 219–226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

K. S. Lok, Y. C. Kwok, P. P. Foo Lee, and N.-T. Nguyen, “Ferrofluid plug as valve and actuator for whole-cell PCR on chip,” Sens. Actuators B 166–167, 893–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hartshorne, C. J. Backhouse, and W. E. Lee, “Ferrofluid-based microchip pump and valve,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 592–600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the parallel geometry optofluidic switch. (a) Both outputs are in the ON state. (b) The plug is used to turn output 1 OFF. (c) The plug is used to turn output 2 OFF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication procedure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Single-mode device characterization setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Multimode device characterization setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) and (b) Close-ups of a waveguide and microfluidic channel intersection in the ON and OFF states. Inset: zoomed-out image showing parallel switches.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Normalized contrast ratio in repeated trials. (b) Normalized contrast ratio measured over 12 h intervals.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured speed versus volume for EMG 507 ferrofluid plugs inside a 250 μm diameter microfluidic channel.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Parallel multimode switches. (a) “1,1,1.” (b)–(d) “0,1,1,” “1,0,1,” and “1,1,0” states using a single ferrofluid plug. (e)–(g) “0,0,1,” “0,1,0,” and “1,0,0” states using two ferrofluid plugs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Water-Based Ferrofluids

Tables Icon

Table 2. Contrast Ratios of Single-Mode Switches

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Absorption(dB/100μm)=10log(PoutferrofluidPoutcell)*(100μm140μm).
Insertion Loss=10log(Pout(chipON)Pout(nochip)).

Metrics