Abstract

The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Thies and J. Bendix, “Satellite based remote sensing of weather and climate: recent achievements and future perspectives,” Met. Appl. 18, 262–295 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for the ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Woods, M. Chang, and G. Baister, “EarthCARE MSI TIR filter and dichroic coating specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00018, #0119774 Version 5 (2010); otherwise unpublished.
  8. D. Woods and J. Everett, “EarthCARE MSI TIR lens and mirror specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00036, #0135617 Version 2 (2009); otherwise unpublished.
  9. J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebyscheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Matthews and K. Wright, Crystran Ltd. (private communication, 23 December 2008).
  11. A. Smakula and M. Klein, “The plastic deformation of thallium halides in relation to crystal orientation,” Report 1102, Project (Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Radiation Branch, 1949), submitted to U.S. Army.
  12. W. Tropf and M. Thomas, “Infrared optical materials, inorganic optical materials,” Proc. SPIE CR64, 137–169 (1996).
  13. D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, 1971).
  15. D. Khokhlov and M. O. Manasreh, Lead Chalcogenides: Physics and Applications, Vol. 18, Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices (Taylor & Francis, 2003).
  16. J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Infrared multilayer interference filter manufacture: supposed longwave limit,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3368–3370 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Zhang, J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. Hawkins, “Optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1125, 45–52 (1989).
  18. G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221–5230 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Ruffner, M. Himel, V. Mizrahi, G. Stegeman, and U. Gibson, “Effects of low substrate temperature and ion assisted deposition on composition, optical properties, and stress of ZnS thin films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5209–5214 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), pp. 435–438.
  23. G. Hawkins and R. Sherwood, “Cooled infrared filters and dichroics for the James Webb Space Telescope mid-infrared instrument,” Appl. Opt. 47, C25–C34 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Hawkins and R. Hunneman, “A spectral performance model for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6–18  μm),” Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 239–246 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. Thies and J. Bendix, “Satellite based remote sensing of weather and climate: recent achievements and future perspectives,” Met. Appl. 18, 262–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins and R. Sherwood, “Cooled infrared filters and dichroics for the James Webb Space Telescope mid-infrared instrument,” Appl. Opt. 47, C25–C34 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

G. Hawkins and R. Hunneman, “A spectral performance model for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6–18  μm),” Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 239–246 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221–5230 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

W. Tropf and M. Thomas, “Infrared optical materials, inorganic optical materials,” Proc. SPIE CR64, 137–169 (1996).

1989 (2)

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebyscheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[Crossref]

Baister, G.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Woods, M. Chang, and G. Baister, “EarthCARE MSI TIR filter and dichroic coating specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00018, #0119774 Version 5 (2010); otherwise unpublished.

Barnes, A.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

Barrett, B.

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221–5230 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bates, N.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

Bendix, J.

B. Thies and J. Bendix, “Satellite based remote sensing of weather and climate: recent achievements and future perspectives,” Met. Appl. 18, 262–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blodgett, D.

D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, M.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Woods, M. Chang, and G. Baister, “EarthCARE MSI TIR filter and dichroic coating specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00018, #0119774 Version 5 (2010); otherwise unpublished.

Chen, T. C.

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebyscheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[Crossref]

de Goeij, B. T. G.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

Deeley, C.

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), pp. 435–438.

Djotni, K.

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Evans, C. S.

Everett, J.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Woods and J. Everett, “EarthCARE MSI TIR lens and mirror specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00036, #0135617 Version 2 (2009); otherwise unpublished.

Gelsthorpe, R.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gelsthorpe, R. V.

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Gibson, U.

Hahn, D.

D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, G.

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins and R. Sherwood, “Cooled infrared filters and dichroics for the James Webb Space Telescope mid-infrared instrument,” Appl. Opt. 47, C25–C34 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221–5230 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins and R. Hunneman, “A spectral performance model for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6–18  μm),” Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 239–246 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. Hawkins, “Optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1125, 45–52 (1989).

Heliere, A.

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Himel, M.

Hopkinson, G.

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

Hunneman, R.

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins and R. Hunneman, “A spectral performance model for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6–18  μm),” Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 239–246 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221–5230 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. Hawkins, “Optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1125, 45–52 (1989).

J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Infrared multilayer interference filter manufacture: supposed longwave limit,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3368–3370 (1979).
[Crossref]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for the ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
[Crossref]

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), pp. 435–438.

Kaplan, S.

D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khokhlov, D.

D. Khokhlov and M. O. Manasreh, Lead Chalcogenides: Physics and Applications, Vol. 18, Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Klein, M.

A. Smakula and M. Klein, “The plastic deformation of thallium halides in relation to crystal orientation,” Report 1102, Project (Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Radiation Branch, 1949), submitted to U.S. Army.

Kruse, K.-W.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lefebvre, A.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lemanczyk, J.

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Liddell, H. M.

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebyscheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[Crossref]

Maher, M.

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

Manasreh, M. O.

D. Khokhlov and M. O. Manasreh, Lead Chalcogenides: Physics and Applications, Vol. 18, Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Mateu, E.

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Matthews, K.

K. Matthews and K. Wright, Crystran Ltd. (private communication, 23 December 2008).

Meijer, E. A.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

Münzenmayer, R.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pankove, J.

J. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, 1971).

Perez-Albinana, A.

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Albiñana, A.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Price, M.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

Rojas, L. G.

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruffner, J.

Sauer, M.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seeley, J.

K. Zhang, J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. Hawkins, “Optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1125, 45–52 (1989).

J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Infrared multilayer interference filter manufacture: supposed longwave limit,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3368–3370 (1979).
[Crossref]

Seeley, J. S.

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for the ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebyscheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[Crossref]

Sherwood, R.

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins and R. Sherwood, “Cooled infrared filters and dichroics for the James Webb Space Telescope mid-infrared instrument,” Appl. Opt. 47, C25–C34 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221–5230 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), pp. 435–438.

Skipper, M.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

Smakula, A.

A. Smakula and M. Klein, “The plastic deformation of thallium halides in relation to crystal orientation,” Report 1102, Project (Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Radiation Branch, 1949), submitted to U.S. Army.

Spragg, R.

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), pp. 435–438.

Stegeman, G.

Thies, B.

B. Thies and J. Bendix, “Satellite based remote sensing of weather and climate: recent achievements and future perspectives,” Met. Appl. 18, 262–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomas, M.

D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Tropf and M. Thomas, “Infrared optical materials, inorganic optical materials,” Proc. SPIE CR64, 137–169 (1996).

Tropf, W.

W. Tropf and M. Thomas, “Infrared optical materials, inorganic optical materials,” Proc. SPIE CR64, 137–169 (1996).

van der Knaap, F.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

Van’t Hof, A.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

Wallace, K.

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Weih, E.

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

Whatley, A.

Wood, T.

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

Woods, D.

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Woods, M. Chang, and G. Baister, “EarthCARE MSI TIR filter and dichroic coating specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00018, #0119774 Version 5 (2010); otherwise unpublished.

D. Woods and J. Everett, “EarthCARE MSI TIR lens and mirror specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00036, #0135617 Version 2 (2009); otherwise unpublished.

Wright, K.

K. Matthews and K. Wright, Crystran Ltd. (private communication, 23 December 2008).

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang, J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. Hawkins, “Optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1125, 45–52 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

G. Hawkins and R. Hunneman, “A spectral performance model for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6–18  μm),” Infrared Phys. Technol. 41, 239–246 (2000).
[Crossref]

Met. Appl. (1)

B. Thies and J. Bendix, “Satellite based remote sensing of weather and climate: recent achievements and future perspectives,” Met. Appl. 18, 262–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebyscheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (9)

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, E. Weih, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, and M. Chang, “The multi-spectral imager on board the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780815 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pérez-Albiñana, R. Gelsthorpe, A. Lefebvre, M. Sauer, K.-W. Kruse, R. Münzenmayer, G. Baister, M. Chang, J. Everett, A. Barnes, N. Bates, M. Price, M. Skipper, B. T. G. de Goeij, E. A. Meijer, F. van der Knaap, and A. Van’t Hof, “The engineering model for the multispectral imager of the EarthCARE spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE 8511, 85110L (2012).
[Crossref]

L. G. Rojas, M. Chang, G. Baister, G. Hopkinson, M. Maher, M. Price, M. Skipper, T. Wood, and D. Woods, “The EarthCARE multispectral imager thermal infrared optical unit detection system design,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260H (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, J. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. Hawkins, “Optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1125, 45–52 (1989).

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. Barrett, “Interference filters and coatings for mid-infrared astronomy (8–30  μm),” Proc. SPIE 4842, 43–55 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Tropf and M. Thomas, “Infrared optical materials, inorganic optical materials,” Proc. SPIE CR64, 137–169 (1996).

D. Blodgett, M. Thomas, D. Hahn, and S. Kaplan, “Longwave infrared absorption and scatter properties of ZnS and ZnSe,” Proc. SPIE 5078, 137–147 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. V. Gelsthorpe, A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, J. Lemanczyk, E. Mateu, A. Perez-Albinana, and K. Wallace, “Aspects of the EarthCARE satellite and its payload,” Proc. SPIE 7826, 78260G (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), pp. 435–438.

J. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, 1971).

D. Khokhlov and M. O. Manasreh, Lead Chalcogenides: Physics and Applications, Vol. 18, Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

K. Matthews and K. Wright, Crystran Ltd. (private communication, 23 December 2008).

A. Smakula and M. Klein, “The plastic deformation of thallium halides in relation to crystal orientation,” Report 1102, Project (Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Radiation Branch, 1949), submitted to U.S. Army.

D. Woods, M. Chang, and G. Baister, “EarthCARE MSI TIR filter and dichroic coating specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00018, #0119774 Version 5 (2010); otherwise unpublished.

D. Woods and J. Everett, “EarthCARE MSI TIR lens and mirror specification,” SSTL Ltd. reference document EC.RS.SSTL.MSI.00036, #0135617 Version 2 (2009); otherwise unpublished.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. MSI TIR optical layout.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. MSI integrated bandpass filter, dichroic, and mirror assembly coating layout.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Filter and dichroic design layout.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Manufactured filter and dichroic optical assembly.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Overlay of the manufactured dichroic measurements at 30° incidence and spectral limits.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Overlay of the measured bandpass filters at 295 K under 9.5° incident illumination and spectral tolerances.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Overlay of the manufactured broadband antireflection coatings (R%<1%).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measurements of dichroic polarization split at 30° incidence, with the polarizer at 0° (S-pol) and 90° (P-pol).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Overlay of simulated dichroic angle sensitivity and incident angle tolerance.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Typical increasing bandwidth and reflectivity of a dielectric mirror with layer pair count.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Detector assembly with Invar rods.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Geometric MTF average at Nyquist frequency versus temperature.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Simulation of the total integrated transmission of uncoated ZnSe, Ge, and GaAs substrates at 295 K.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Overlay of the transmission measurements of the dichroics and filters at their respective operating conditions, and the predicted throughput from the integrated assembly.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Simulated performance of the manufactured dielectric mirrors at 45° incidence.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Predicted total instrument throughput of Band 7 (8.8 μm).
Fig. 17.
Fig. 17. Predicted total instrument throughput of Band 8 (10.8 μm).
Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. Predicted total instrument throughput of Band 9 (12.0 μm).
Fig. 19.
Fig. 19. Overlay of the predicted normalized wave band throughputs and their respective instrument templates.
Fig. 20.
Fig. 20. Overlay of the predicted integrated system blocking performance.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Dichroic Beam Splitter Performance Requirements

Tables Icon

Table 2. Bandpass Filter Performance Requirements

Tables Icon

Table 3. Bandpass Measurements of the Manufactured Flight Filters at Operating Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 4. Predicted End-To-End System Throughput from the Manufactured Flight Elements at their Operating Parameters

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DTp-s(λ)=TpTsTp+Ts,whereTp=λminλmaxTp(λ)dλandTs=λminλmaxTs(λ)dλ.
OOB(λ)=1InBand(IB)TotalBand(TB),whereTB=λminλmaxT%(λ)dλandIB=SW0.1%LW0.1%TIB%(λ)dλ.

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