Abstract

In this paper, we propose a reflective long-period grating-based sensor with a Sagnac fiber loop mirror (SFLM) for simultaneous measurement of refractive index (RI) and temperature. By cascading the SFLM to the end of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG), the LPFG works as a reflection operation, which is convenient in some applications. Further, the SFLM and the LPFG have different sensitivities to RI and temperature. As a result, RI and temperature measurement can be simultaneously achieved by monitoring the wavelength shifts of the LPFG and the SFLM’s dips in the reflection spectrum. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity can reach 1.533 nm/°C, and the RI sensitivity is from 16.864 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) to 113.142 nm/RIU when the RI range is from 1.333 to 1.430. The application for 40 km long-distance RI and temperature measurement shows that the sensor has potential application in long-distance sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and I. Torres-Gomez, “Highly sensitive cladding-etched arc-induced long-period fiber gratings for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Commun. 283, 958–962 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

L. Chen, X. Guo, and J. Hao, “Refractive index measurement by fiber point diffraction longitudinal shearing interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3655–3661 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, “Long period fiber grating based temperature-compensated high performance sensor for bio-chemical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1121–1127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alwis, T. Sun, and K. V. Grattan, “Analysis of polyimide-coated optical fiber long period grating-based relative humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 767–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2010 (1)

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and I. Torres-Gomez, “Highly sensitive cladding-etched arc-induced long-period fiber gratings for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Commun. 283, 958–962 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alwis, L.

L. Alwis, T. Sun, and K. V. Grattan, “Analysis of polyimide-coated optical fiber long period grating-based relative humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 767–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, “Long period fiber grating based temperature-compensated high performance sensor for bio-chemical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1121–1127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, X.

Chu, J.

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dora, J.

Garg, R.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, “Long period fiber grating based temperature-compensated high performance sensor for bio-chemical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1121–1127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. V.

L. Alwis, T. Sun, and K. V. Grattan, “Analysis of polyimide-coated optical fiber long period grating-based relative humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 767–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guan, C.

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Hao, J.

He, S.

Hu, D. J. J.

Jiang, M.

Jin, S.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Juan, H.

Kim, D. W.

Li, S.

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. L.

Lu, C.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Martinez-Rios, A.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and I. Torres-Gomez, “Highly sensitive cladding-etched arc-induced long-period fiber gratings for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Commun. 283, 958–962 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milenko, K.

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and I. Torres-Gomez, “Highly sensitive cladding-etched arc-induced long-period fiber gratings for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Commun. 283, 958–962 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ping Shum, P.

Qi, L.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C.

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F.

Shi, J.

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P. P.

Sun, T.

L. Alwis, T. Sun, and K. V. Grattan, “Analysis of polyimide-coated optical fiber long period grating-based relative humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 767–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Thyagarajan, K.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, “Long period fiber grating based temperature-compensated high performance sensor for bio-chemical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1121–1127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tian, X.

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tong, W.

Torres-Gomez, I.

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and I. Torres-Gomez, “Highly sensitive cladding-etched arc-induced long-period fiber gratings for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Commun. 283, 958–962 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. M.

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, “Long period fiber grating based temperature-compensated high performance sensor for bio-chemical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1121–1127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. C.

Yang, X.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

Zhang, T.

Zhang, Z.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. L.

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, C.

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, X.

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

J. Wang, C. Shen, C. Zhong, J. Chu, and X. Dong, “Liquid refractive index sensor based on a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 1721–1724 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alwis, T. Sun, and K. V. Grattan, “Analysis of polyimide-coated optical fiber long period grating-based relative humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 767–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Martinez-Rios, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and I. Torres-Gomez, “Highly sensitive cladding-etched arc-induced long-period fiber gratings for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Commun. 283, 958–962 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators B (4)

C. Guan, X. Tian, S. Li, X. Zhong, J. Shi, and L. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 188, 768–771 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Shen, Y. You, J. Chu, X. Zou, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “A polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror based sensor for liquid refractive index absolute measurement,” Sens. Actuators B 168, 360–364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Qi, C. L. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Garg, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, and W. J. Bock, “Long period fiber grating based temperature-compensated high performance sensor for bio-chemical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 176, 1121–1127 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the dual-parameter measurement sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection spectra of (a) LPFG, (b) SFLM, and (c) proposed cascaded device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured reflection spectra of the cascaded device with different external RIs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relationships of the wavelength of dips and external RIs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured reflection spectra of the cascaded device with different surrounding temperatures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Relationships of the wavelength of dips and surrounding temperature.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured reflection spectra of the proposed sensor with both temperature and RI changing.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured reflection spectra of the proposed sensor with (a) different external RI and (b) different surrounding temperature in 40 km measurement.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the Measured Values and True Values

Equations (4)

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ΔλLPFG=KL,TΔT+KL,n(n)Δn,
ΔλSFLM=KS,TΔT,
[ΔnΔT]=[KL,n(n)KL,T0KS,T]1×[ΔλLPFGΔλSFLM].
[ΔnΔT]=[0.421/(n1.493)2(nm/RIU)69.0×103(nm/°C)01.533(nm/°C)]1×[ΔλLPFGΔλSFLM].

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