Abstract

Numerical simulation of the paraxial propagation of pulses modulated by lenses is demonstrated using the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) series expansion method. This technique allows for relatively swift evaluation of the structures of several individual monochromatic fields transformed by arbitrary amplitude and phase modulating pupil functions, which can be superimposed via the inverse Fourier transform to determine the structure of a modulated pulse. The transformation of ultrashort pulses by spherical, diffractive, and conical lenses is simulated using this method, which is particularly effective with the use of vector and matrix techniques available in many popular numerical software packages. A description of the convergence of the LG series to the results of the conventional integral techniques is presented for a conical lens under illumination by a continuous wave from which a simple but robust criterion for axial accuracy in problems of circular symmetry is suggested.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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