Abstract

The far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier-transform spectrometer developed to measure the Earth’s thermal emission spectrum with a particular emphasis on the far-infrared. FIRST has observed the atmosphere from both the ground looking up and from a high-altitude balloon looking down. A recent absolute laboratory calibration of FIRST under ground-like operating conditions showed accuracy to better than 0.3 K at near-ambient temperatures (270–325 K) but reduced accuracy at lower temperatures. This paper presents calibration results for balloon-flight conditions using a cold blackbody to simulate the space view used for on-board calibration. An unusual detector nonlinearity was discovered and corrected, and stray light was measured and removed. Over most of the range of Earth scene temperatures (205–300 K), the accuracy of FIRST is 0.35–0.15 K (one sigma).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

H. Latvakoski, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, R. P. Cageao, D. P. Kratz, and K. Johnson, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: instrument description and calibration performance,” Appl. Opt. 52, 264–273 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

2010 (2)

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

2008 (1)

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. P. Rice and B. C. Johnson, “The NIST EOS thermal-infrared transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ao, C. O.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bantges, R.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baran, A.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Best, F.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Bingham, G.

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, G. E.

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, K.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brindley, H.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. J.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cadeddu, M. P.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Cageao, R. P.

Carli, B.

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Collins, W.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Corliss, J.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C. J.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Crewell, S.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Delamere, J. S.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Doelling, D. R.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dykema, J. A.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, D. R.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. R.

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Green, P.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Harries, J.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harries, J. E.

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holz, R.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, C. R.

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iacono, M. J.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

J. P. Rice and B. C. Johnson, “The NIST EOS thermal-infrared transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. G.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Latvakoski, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, R. P. Cageao, D. P. Kratz, and K. Johnson, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: instrument description and calibration performance,” Appl. Opt. 52, 264–273 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

Jucks, K.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kato, S.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Kopp, G.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kratz, D. P.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Latvakoski, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, R. P. Cageao, D. P. Kratz, and K. Johnson, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: instrument description and calibration performance,” Appl. Opt. 52, 264–273 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Last, A.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Latvakoski, H.

H. Latvakoski, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, R. P. Cageao, D. P. Kratz, and K. Johnson, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: instrument description and calibration performance,” Appl. Opt. 52, 264–273 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Latvakoski and M. Watson, “Performance of highly emissivity 10 to 100  μm blackbodies,” presented at 2005 CALCON Technical Conference, Logan, Utah, 22–25 August2005.

Latvakoski, H. M.

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, S.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lukashin, C.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Maestri, T.

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
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Mannucci, A. J.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Masiello, G.

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
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Mertens, C. J.

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
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Mlawer, E. J.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Mlynczak, M.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
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Mlynczak, M. G.

H. Latvakoski, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, R. P. Cageao, D. P. Kratz, and K. Johnson, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere: instrument description and calibration performance,” Appl. Opt. 52, 264–273 (2013).
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B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
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G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
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M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
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Murray, J.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Paine, S.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Palchetti, L.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
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Phojanamongkolkij, N.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Pilewskie, P.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Ramaswamy, V.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Revercomb, H.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Rice, J.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Rice, J. P.

J. P. Rice and B. C. Johnson, “The NIST EOS thermal-infrared transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 505 (1998).
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Richards, R. L.

R. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1–24 (1994).
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Rizzi, R.

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, Y.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Roithmayr, C. M.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rose, F.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Sandford, S.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Scott, D.

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
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Serio, C.

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
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Shirley, E. L.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
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Smith, W. L.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Soden, B.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Soden, B. J.

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Speth, P. W.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stackhouse, P. W.

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P.

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Taylor, P. C.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Topham, S.

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

Watson, M.

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Latvakoski and M. Watson, “Performance of highly emissivity 10 to 100  μm blackbodies,” presented at 2005 CALCON Technical Conference, Logan, Utah, 22–25 August2005.

Wellard, S. J.

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wielicki, B. A.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, M.

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. F.

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, M. G. Mlynczak, K. J. Thome, S. Leroy, J. Corliss, J. G. Anderson, C. O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H. Brindley, J. J. Butler, W. Collins, J. A. Dykema, D. R. Doelling, D. R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D. G. Johnson, K. Jucks, S. Kato, D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D. P. Kratz, X. Liu, C. Lukashin, A. J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C. M. Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E. L. Shirley, W. L. Smith, B. Soden, P. W. Speth, W. Sun, P. C. Taylor, D. Tobin, and X. Xiong, “Achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 1519–1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, H. Latvakoski, K. Jucks, M. Watson, D. P. Kratz, G. Bingham, W. A. Traub, S. J. Wellard, C. R. Hyde, and W. Liu, “First light from the far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, G. Bianchini, M. P. Cadeddu, S. Crewell, J. S. Delamere, R. O. Knuteson, G. Maschwitz, M. Mlynczak, S. Paine, L. Palchetti, and D. C. Tobin, “Ground-based high spectral resolution observations of the entire terrestrial spectrum under extremely dry conditions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10801 (2012).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

J. P. Rice and B. C. Johnson, “The NIST EOS thermal-infrared transfer radiometer,” Metrologia 35, 505 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. G. Mlynczak, J. E. Harries, R. Rizzi, P. W. Stackhouse, D. P. Kratz, D. G. Johnson, C. J. Mertens, R. R. Garcia, and B. J. Soden, “Far-infrared: a frontier in remote sensing of Earth’s climate, and energy balance,” Proc. SPIE 4485, 150–158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Latvakoski, M. Watson, S. Topham, D. Scott, M. Wojcik, and G. Bingham, “A high-accuracy blackbody for CLARREO,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080X (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Bingham, H. M. Latvakoski, S. J. Wellard, M. G. Mlynczak, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, and K. W. Jucks, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development, and performance drivers,” Proc. SPIE 5157, 143–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

C. J. Cox, J. Harries, P. Taylor, P. Green, A. Baran, J. Pickering, A. Last, and J. Murray, “Measurement and simulation of mid- and far-infrared spectra in the presence of cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136, 718–739 (2010).

Rev. Geophys. (1)

J. Harries, B. Carli, R. Rizzi, C. Serio, M. Mlynczak, L. Palchetti, T. Maestri, H. Brindley, and G. Masiello, “The far-infrared Earth,” Rev. Geophys. 46, RG4004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Latvakoski and M. Watson, “Performance of highly emissivity 10 to 100  μm blackbodies,” presented at 2005 CALCON Technical Conference, Logan, Utah, 22–25 August2005.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cutaway view of FIRST with the principal components labeled and the light path shown by the thick red arrows.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cutaway view of the LWIRCS blackbody.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of the SVS (black), WBB (red), and LWIRCS at 292 K (orange) from detector 2 at full 0.6428cm1 resolution. The real part is the solid line and the imaginary part is the dashed line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Brightness temperature for LWIRCS as measured by each FIRST detector with LWIRCS at 181.48, 229.98, 291.49, and 324.66 K. On each plot the horizontal line is the actual temperature of LWIRCS during the data collection. Data from both scan directions are shown in the same color so there are two curves of each color. The resolution is 0.6428cm1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Brightness temperature for LWIRCS at 324.49 K with the LWIRCS front baffle at 341.8 K. Compare with the bottom right plot in Fig. 4 where LWIRCS is at 324.66 K and the baffle is at 321.4 K.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fraction of light seen by FIRST coming from the LWIRCS baffle as calculated from the data in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Brightness temperature of LWIRCS at temperatures of 178.54, 229.39, 292.04, and 324.76 K with the window between the scene-select assembly and interferometer dewar removed.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Fraction of light seen by FIRST coming from the LWIRCS baffle with the window between the scene-select assembly and interferometer dewar removed.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Plot of x versus y as defined by Eq. (6) at 400cm1 for all detectors.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

DC voltage across the FIRST bolometers for all detectors as a function of target viewed.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Plot of x versus y as defined by Eq. (6) at 400cm1 for all detectors after nonlinearity correction is applied.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

LWIRCS brightness temperature with LWIRCS at 178.54 K with the window removed, corrected for nonlinearity (left) and with nonlinearity and stray light corrections (right). The uncorrected data are shown in Fig. 7 upper left.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

LWIRCS brightness temperature with LWIRCS at 229.39 K with the window removed, corrected for nonlinearity (left) and with nonlinearity and stray light corrections (right). The uncorrected data are shown in Fig. 7, upper right.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

LWIRCS brightness temperature with LWIRCS at 292.04 K with the window removed, corrected for nonlinearity (left) and with nonlinearity and stray light corrections (right). The uncorrected data are shown in Fig. 7, lower left.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

LWIRCS brightness temperature with LWIRCS at 324.76 K with the window removed, corrected for nonlinearity (left) and with nonlinearity and stray light corrections (right). The uncorrected data are shown in Fig. 7, lower right.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

rms brightness temperature deviation between 200 and 800cm1 at all LWIRCS temperatures with window removed, and nonlinearity correction only (red) and nonlinearity plus stray light corrections (black). The curve with the nonlinearity correction only includes data from detectors 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and the curve with both corrections includes data from all detectors except 5 and 10.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. FIRST Instrument Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Performance Specifications for the LWIRCS Blackbody

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PTarget=STargetSSVSSWBBSSVS(PWBBPSVS)+PSVS.
(1fT)PT+fTRT=x((1fW)PW+fWRW(1fS)PSfSRS)+(1fS)PS+fSRS.
xSTSSSWSS.
PT=x(PWPC+R1)+PC+R2.
R1=(fTfW)PW+fWRW(fTfS)PS+fSRS1fTR2=(fTfS)PS+fSRSfTRT1fT.
PTPCx(PWPC)y=xR1+R2.

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