Abstract

The generation of well-calibrated radiometric measurements from imaging spectrometer data requires careful consideration of all influencing factors, as well as an instrument calibration based on a detailed sensor model. Deviations of ambient parameters (i.e., pressure, humidity, temperature) from standard laboratory conditions during airborne operations can lead to biases that should be accounted for and properly compensated by using dedicated instrument models. This study introduces a model for the airborne imaging spectrometer airborne prism experiment (APEX), describing the impact of spectral shifts as well as polarization effects on the radiometric system response due to changing ambient parameters. Key issues are related to changing properties of the dichroic coating applied to the dispersing elements within the optical path. We present a model based on discrete numerical simulations. With the improved modeling approach, we predict radiometric biases with an root mean square error (RMSE) below 1%, leading to a substantial improvement of radiometric stability and predictability of system behavior.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  5. B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, and C. O. Davis, “Refinement of wavelength calibrations of hyperspectral imaging data using a spectrum-matching technique,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 424–433 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Schläpfer, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Spatial PSF non-uniformity effects in airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometry data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 458–468 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
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  10. M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.
  11. P. D’Odorico, E. Alberti, and M. Schaepman, “In-flight spectral performance monitoring of APEX,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3082–3091 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. D’Odorico, L. Guanter, M. E. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “Performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for airborne prism experiment spectral characterization,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4755–4764 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.
  14. A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.
  15. A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, and M. Jehle, “Operational calibration of APEX,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2013), pp. 4423–4426.
  16. M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.
  17. A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.
  19. A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
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  20. OIP Sensor Systems, APEX OSU Optical Design Description (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Nieke, M. Solbrig, and A. Neumann, “Noise contributions for imaging spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5191–5194 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. U. Böttger, J. Nieke, and D. Schläpfer, “Assessing polarization effects for the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX,” Adv. Radio Sci. 4, 323–328 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN7,” (Air Force Geophys. Lab, 1989), p. 38.
  28. D. Schläpfer, “MODO: an interface to MODTRAN4 for the simulation of imaging spectrometry at-sensor signals,” in 10th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop (JPL, 2001), pp. 343–350.
  29. T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).
  30. D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Guanter, R. Richter, and J. Moreno, “Spectral calibration of hyperspectral imagery using atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2360–2370 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Schläpfer, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Spatial PSF non-uniformity effects in airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometry data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 458–468 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Böttger, J. Nieke, and D. Schläpfer, “Assessing polarization effects for the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX,” Adv. Radio Sci. 4, 323–328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Guanter, R. Richter, and J. Moreno, “Spectral calibration of hyperspectral imagery using atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2360–2370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, and C. O. Davis, “Refinement of wavelength calibrations of hyperspectral imaging data using a spectrum-matching technique,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 424–433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Schläpfer, A. Boerner, S. Bojinski, and M. Schaepman, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

1999 (2)

M. Dinguirard and P. N. Slater, “Calibration of space-multispectral imaging sensors: a review,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 194–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nieke, M. Solbrig, and A. Neumann, “Noise contributions for imaging spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5191–5194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acarreta, J. R.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adnet, A.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adriaensen, S.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahlers, B.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alberti, E.

P. D’Odorico, E. Alberti, and M. Schaepman, “In-flight spectral performance monitoring of APEX,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3082–3091 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

Baumgartner, A.

A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN7,” (Air Force Geophys. Lab, 1989), p. 38.

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN7,” (Air Force Geophys. Lab, 1989), p. 38.

Biesemans, J.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

Boerner, A.

D. Schläpfer, A. Boerner, S. Bojinski, and M. Schaepman, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

Bojinski, S.

D. Schläpfer, A. Boerner, S. Bojinski, and M. Schaepman, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

Bomans, B.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

Börner, A.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Böttger, U.

U. Böttger, J. Nieke, and D. Schläpfer, “Assessing polarization effects for the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX,” Adv. Radio Sci. 4, 323–328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brazile, J.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Bühler, Y.

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burkart, A.

A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.

Chance, K.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, P.

P. D’Odorico, L. Guanter, M. E. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “Performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for airborne prism experiment spectral characterization,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4755–4764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. D’Odorico, E. Alberti, and M. Schaepman, “In-flight spectral performance monitoring of APEX,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3082–3091 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

Damm, A.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Davis, C. O.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, and C. O. Davis, “Refinement of wavelength calibrations of hyperspectral imaging data using a spectrum-matching technique,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 424–433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Endice, F.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

Dinguirard, M.

M. Dinguirard and P. N. Slater, “Calibration of space-multispectral imaging sensors: a review,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 194–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fries, J.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B.-C.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, and C. O. Davis, “Refinement of wavelength calibrations of hyperspectral imaging data using a spectrum-matching technique,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 424–433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gege, P.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Gloudemans, A. M. S.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guanter, L.

Haschberger, P.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hauer, K.-O.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hollandt, J.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hoogeveen, R. W. M.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Höpe, A.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huber, S.

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hueni, A.

A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, and M. Jehle, “Operational calibration of APEX,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2013), pp. 4423–4426.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.

Itten, K.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Spatial PSF non-uniformity effects in airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometry data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 458–468 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

Itten, K. I.

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Jehle, M.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, and M. Jehle, “Operational calibration of APEX,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2013), pp. 4423–4426.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.

Jongma, R.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kellenberger, T.

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keller, P.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kempenaers, S.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleipool, Q.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kneubuehler, M.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kneubühler, M.

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

Kohler, P.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Köhler, C.

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).

Krijger, J. M.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Küchler, C.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Laurent, V.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Lenhard, K.

A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).

Liang, S.

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenberg, G.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meuleman, K.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

Meynart, R.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Montes, M. J.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, and C. O. Davis, “Refinement of wavelength calibrations of hyperspectral imaging data using a spectrum-matching technique,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 424–433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J.

Neumann, A.

Nieke, J.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Spatial PSF non-uniformity effects in airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometry data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 458–468 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Böttger, J. Nieke, and D. Schläpfer, “Assessing polarization effects for the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX,” Adv. Radio Sci. 4, 323–328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nieke, M. Solbrig, and A. Neumann, “Noise contributions for imaging spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5191–5194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

Noël, S.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Odermatt, D.

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Painter, T. H.

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pape, S.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Piters, A.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plaza, A. J.

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popp, C.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Reulke, R.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R.

L. Guanter, R. Richter, and J. Moreno, “Spectral calibration of hyperspectral imagery using atmospheric absorption features,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2360–2370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN7,” (Air Force Geophys. Lab, 1989), p. 38.

Schaepman, M.

A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. D’Odorico, E. Alberti, and M. Schaepman, “In-flight spectral performance monitoring of APEX,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3082–3091 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, A. Boerner, S. Bojinski, and M. Schaepman, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.

Schaepman, M. E.

P. D’Odorico, L. Guanter, M. E. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “Performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for airborne prism experiment spectral characterization,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4755–4764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.

Schläpfer, D.

P. D’Odorico, L. Guanter, M. E. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “Performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for airborne prism experiment spectral characterization,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4755–4764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Spatial PSF non-uniformity effects in airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometry data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 458–468 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Böttger, J. Nieke, and D. Schläpfer, “Assessing polarization effects for the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX,” Adv. Radio Sci. 4, 323–328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, A. Boerner, S. Bojinski, and M. Schaepman, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

D. Schläpfer, “MODO: an interface to MODTRAN4 for the simulation of imaging spectrometry at-sensor signals,” in 10th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop (JPL, 2001), pp. 343–350.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

Schneider, F. D.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Schopfer, J.

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schötz, P.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schrijver, H.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrijvers, C.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzer, H.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzmaier, T.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).

Seidel, F.

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, F. C.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Sioris, C. E.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, J.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

M. Dinguirard and P. N. Slater, “Calibration of space-multispectral imaging sensors: a review,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 194–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slijkhuis, S.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solbrig, M.

Sperfeld, P.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sterckx, S.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, and M. Jehle, “Operational calibration of APEX,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2013), pp. 4423–4426.

Strobl, P.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suhr, B.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. G.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taubert, D. R.

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tilstra, L. G.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, G.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

Ustin, S. L.

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Hees, R.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Soest, G.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verrelst, J.

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vos, L. D.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

Vreeling, W. J.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vreys, K.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

Weyermann, J.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

Wiest, L.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wuttke, M.

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G. Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Radio Sci. (1)

U. Böttger, J. Nieke, and D. Schläpfer, “Assessing polarization effects for the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX,” Adv. Radio Sci. 4, 323–328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

D. R. Taubert, J. Hollandt, P. Sperfeld, S. Pape, A. Höpe, K.-O. Hauer, P. Gege, T. Schwarzmaier, K. Lenhard, and A. Baumgartner, “Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1531, 376–379 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, J. M. Krijger, G. van Soest, R. van Hees, L. G. Tilstra, J. R. Acarreta, I. Aben, B. Ahlers, H. Bovensmann, K. Chance, A. M. S. Gloudemans, R. W. M. Hoogeveen, R. Jongma, S. Noël, A. Piters, H. Schrijver, C. Schrijvers, C. E. Sioris, J. Skupin, S. Slijkhuis, P. Stammes, and M. Wuttke, “SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 8925–8977 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Remote Sens. (1)

D. Schläpfer, A. Boerner, S. Bojinski, and M. Schaepman, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (4)

A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. Schaepman, “The APEX (airborne prism experiment—imaging spectrometer) calibration information system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 5169–5180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Hueni, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, F. Dell’Endice, D. Schläpfer, S. Adriaensen, S. Kempenaers, D. Odermatt, M. Kneubuehler, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Structure, components and interfaces of the airborne prism experiment (APEX) processing and archiving facility,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47, 29–43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, F. Dell’Endice, J. Brazile, and K. I. Itten, “Uniformity of imaging spectrometry data products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 3326–3336 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schläpfer, J. Nieke, and K. Itten, “Spatial PSF non-uniformity effects in airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometry data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 458–468 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (2)

A. Börner, L. Wiest, R. Reulke, R. Richter, P. Keller, M. Schaepman, and D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schötz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. J. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

M. Dinguirard and P. N. Slater, “Calibration of space-multispectral imaging sensors: a review,” Remote Sens. Environ. 68, 194–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, and C. O. Davis, “Refinement of wavelength calibrations of hyperspectral imaging data using a spectrum-matching technique,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 424–433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schaepman, S. L. Ustin, A. J. Plaza, T. H. Painter, J. Verrelst, and S. Liang, “Earth system science related imaging spectroscopy—An assessment,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S123–S137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 118, 177–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

K. Itten, F. Dell’Endice, A. Hueni, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, D. Odermatt, F. Seidel, S. Huber, J. Schopfer, T. Kellenberger, Y. Bühler, P. D’Odorico, J. Nieke, E. Alberti, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—The hyperspectral ESA airborne prism experiment,” Sensors 8, 6235–6259 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, A. Damm, P. D’Odorico, J. Weyermann, M. Kneubühler, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, and K. Meuleman, “APEX—Current status, performance and validation concept,” in IEEE Sensors (IEEE, 2010), pp. 533–537.

M. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (APEX),” Remote Sens. Environ, submitted.

K. Itten, K. Meuleman, M. Schaepman, E. Alberti, B. Bomans, F. Dell’Endice, P. D’Odorico, A. Hueni, J. Nieke, D. Schläpfer, and G. Ulbrich, “First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX,” in EARSeL SIG IS (EARSeL, 2009), p. 6.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, M. Jehle, P. D’Odorico, K. Vreys, B. Bomans, J. Biesemans, K. Meuleman, and M. Schaepman, “Operational status of APEX and characteristics of the APEX open science data set,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012), pp. 5009–5012.

A. Hueni, S. Sterckx, and M. Jehle, “Operational calibration of APEX,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2013), pp. 4423–4426.

M. Jehle, A. Hueni, K. Lenhard, A. Baumgartner, and M. E. Schaepman, “Detection and correction of radiance variations during spectral calibration in APEX,” IEEE Lett, submitted.

National Research Council, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, S. S. Board, ed. (The National Academies, 2007), p. 456.

OIP Sensor Systems, APEX OSU Optical Design Description (2005).

A. Hueni, M. Jehle, A. Damm, A. Burkart, and M. Schaepman, “Spectroscopy information systems for earth system science,” in ESA PV2013 Workshop (ESA, 2013), pp. 220–230.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN7,” (Air Force Geophys. Lab, 1989), p. 38.

D. Schläpfer, “MODO: an interface to MODTRAN4 for the simulation of imaging spectrometry at-sensor signals,” in 10th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop (JPL, 2001), pp. 343–350.

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, C. Köhler, and K. Lenhard, “DLR’s new traceable radiance standard ‘RASTA’,” in IGARSS (IEEE, 2012).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

APEX calibrated SWIR radiance spectrum showing an unexpected absorption feature at 1026 nm where a smooth transition between 1009 and 1044 nm is expected.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Prisms and channel splitting in the APEX optical subunit [20].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nominal DIC transmittances for H, V, and average polarizations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Data-flow diagram of the DIC model.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized nominal and Fourier analysis extracted transmittances for H and V polarizations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured system response with changing polarization angle for SWIR band 50 (1354 nm) and fitted Fourier analysis-based curve with estimated values for H, V, and average polarizations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Nominal CWs and FWHMs of the SWIR detector.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

CW and FWHM change matrices (visualized with a simulation step size of 0.5 nm).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

DN realizations compared to the zero-shift DN for spectral shifts up to ±2.5 pixels and according maximum relative differences between nominal and realization DNs.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of at-sensor radiance LSλ with calibrated radiance realizations LCλ for uncorrected spectral shifts up to ±2.5 pixels.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Impact of polarization on radiances at zero spectral shift and maximum relative differences between at-sensor and realization radiances.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

At-sensor radiance and calibrated radiance spectrum of a 0.2 albedo target showing the combined effects of spectral shift and polarization and the according difference spectrum in percent.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Comparison of measured and simulated integrating sphere radiances under spectral shift conditions of 200 mbar delta pressure.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LSλ·Tλ·QEλ·aλ+bλ=DNλ,
where:LSλ=at-sensor radianceTλ=transmittance of the optical chainQEλ=quantum efficiencyaλ=amplifier gainbλ=amplifier offset.
LSλ=DNλ·gλ+oλ
where:gλ=radiometric gainoλ=radiometric offset.
TCλ(θ)=TCλ(45)+(TCλ-H-normTCλ(45))·cos(2θ),
TCλ(45)=system transmittance at averagepolarizationTCλ-H-norm=normalized system transmittance atHpolarizationθ=polarization angle.

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