Abstract

The human reception of light includes image-forming and non-image-forming effects which are triggered by spectral distribution and intensity of light. Ideal lighting is similar to daylight, which could be evaluated by spectral or chromaticity match. LED-based and CFL-based lighting were analyzed here, proposed according to spectral and chromaticity match, respectively. The photobiological effects were expressed by effectiveness for blue light hazard, cirtopic activity, and photopic vision. Good spectral match provides light with more similar effects to those obtained by the chromaticity match. The new parameters are useful for better evaluation of complex human responses caused by lighting.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2012 (3)

D. Loe, “Correspondence: lighting metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 85–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Kretschmer, K. H. Schmidt, and B. Griefahn, “Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 316–333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lok, “Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469, 284–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Figueiro and M. S. Rea, “Sleep opportunities and periodic light exposures: impact on biomarkers, performance and sleepiness,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 349–369 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. Kvaskoff and P. Weinstein, “Are some melanomas caused by artificial light,” Med. Hypoth. 75, 305–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hubalek, M. Brink, and C. Schierz, “Office workers’ daily exposure to light and its influence on sleep quality and mood,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 33–50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian light,” J. Circad. Rhythms 8, 2 (2010).

2008 (2)

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Figueiro, “A proposed 24  h lighting scheme for older adults,” Light. Res. Technol. 40, 153–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Algvere, J. Marshall, and S. Seregard, “Age-related maculopathy and the impact of blue light hazard,” Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. 84, 4–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. Fryc, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and Y. Ohno, “LED-based spectrally tunable source for radiometric, photometric, and colorimetric applications,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. M. Berson, “Strange vision: ganglion cells as circadian photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 26, 314–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin supression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Borbely, A. Samson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated colour temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1964 (1)

Algvere, P. V.

P. V. Algvere, J. Marshall, and S. Seregard, “Age-related maculopathy and the impact of blue light hazard,” Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. 84, 4–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arendt, J.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin supression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Attia, D.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, M. A.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Backhaus, W. G. K.

W. G. K. Backhaus, R. Kliegl, and J. S. Werner, Color Vision (de Gruyter, 1998).

Barlier-Sals, A.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Behar-Cohen, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berson, D. M.

D. M. Berson, “Strange vision: ganglion cells as circadian photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 26, 314–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bierman, A.

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian light,” J. Circad. Rhythms 8, 2 (2010).

Bizjak, G.

G. Bizjak, K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “Photobiological aspects of LED sources for general lighting,” in Balkan Light 2012, M. Kostić, ed. (Serbian Lighting Society, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012), pp. 109–116.

K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, G. Bizjak, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “LED lighting: influence on age-dependent melatonin secretion and possible retinal damage,” Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. (posted 6February2014, in press).

Bjorn, L. O.

L. O. Bjorn, Photobiology: The Science of Life and Light (Springer, 2008).

Bliznikas, Z.

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogner, W.

K. Schulmeister, M. Weber, W. Bogner, and E. Schernhammer, “Application of melatonin suppression action spectra on practical lighting issues,” in Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health, Orlando, Florida, November3–5, 2002 (EPRI Lighting Research Office, 2003), pp. 169–178.

Borbely, A.

A. Borbely, A. Samson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated colour temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, C.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting (Applied Science, 1981).

Brainard, G. C.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Brink, M.

S. Hubalek, M. Brink, and C. Schierz, “Office workers’ daily exposure to light and its influence on sleep quality and mood,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 33–50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

I. Fryc, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and Y. Ohno, “LED-based spectrally tunable source for radiometric, photometric, and colorimetric applications,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, J. D.

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian light,” J. Circad. Rhythms 8, 2 (2010).

Byrne, B.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Cecil, K. S.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cesarini, J. P.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-F.

Dacey, D. M.

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enouf, O.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G. P.

I. Fryc, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and Y. Ohno, “LED-based spectrally tunable source for radiometric, photometric, and colorimetric applications,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Figueiro, M. G.

M. G. Figueiro and M. S. Rea, “Sleep opportunities and periodic light exposures: impact on biomarkers, performance and sleepiness,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 349–369 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian light,” J. Circad. Rhythms 8, 2 (2010).

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Figueiro, “A proposed 24  h lighting scheme for older adults,” Light. Res. Technol. 40, 153–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fong, Y. C.

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freasier, B. C.

Fryc, I.

I. Fryc, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and Y. Ohno, “LED-based spectrally tunable source for radiometric, photometric, and colorimetric applications,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamlin, P.

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, E.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Glickman, G.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Greeson, J. M.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Griefahn, B.

V. Kretschmer, K. H. Schmidt, and B. Griefahn, “Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 316–333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hanifin, J. P.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Hausladen, G.

G. Hausladen, Climate Skin (Birkhäuser, 2008).

Hsiao, H. C.

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, H.-C.

Hsiao, S. L.

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, N. C.

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, N.-C.

Hubalek, S.

S. Hubalek, M. Brink, and C. Schierz, “Office workers’ daily exposure to light and its influence on sleep quality and mood,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 33–50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M. R.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

James, M.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

Klanjšek-Gunde, M.

K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, G. Bizjak, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “LED lighting: influence on age-dependent melatonin secretion and possible retinal damage,” Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. (posted 6February2014, in press).

G. Bizjak, K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “Photobiological aspects of LED sources for general lighting,” in Balkan Light 2012, M. Kostić, ed. (Serbian Lighting Society, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012), pp. 109–116.

Kliegl, R.

W. G. K. Backhaus, R. Kliegl, and J. S. Werner, Color Vision (de Gruyter, 1998).

Kobav, M. B.

K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, G. Bizjak, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “LED lighting: influence on age-dependent melatonin secretion and possible retinal damage,” Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. (posted 6February2014, in press).

G. Bizjak, K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “Photobiological aspects of LED sources for general lighting,” in Balkan Light 2012, M. Kostić, ed. (Serbian Lighting Society, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012), pp. 109–116.

Kretschmer, V.

V. Kretschmer, K. H. Schmidt, and B. Griefahn, “Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 316–333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kvaskoff, M.

M. Kvaskoff and P. Weinstein, “Are some melanomas caused by artificial light,” Med. Hypoth. 75, 305–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loe, D.

D. Loe, “Correspondence: lighting metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 85–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lok, C.

C. Lok, “Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469, 284–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Maida, J.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

P. V. Algvere, J. Marshall, and S. Seregard, “Age-related maculopathy and the impact of blue light hazard,” Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. 84, 4–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Borreguero, G.

Martinsons, C.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McCamy, C. S.

C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McDougal, D. H.

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

I. Fryc, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and Y. Ohno, “LED-based spectrally tunable source for radiometric, photometric, and colorimetric applications,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, P. J.

Pérez, Á. L.

Picaud, S.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

M. G. Figueiro and M. S. Rea, “Sleep opportunities and periodic light exposures: impact on biomarkers, performance and sleepiness,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 349–369 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian light,” J. Circad. Rhythms 8, 2 (2010).

Rebec, K. M.

G. Bizjak, K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “Photobiological aspects of LED sources for general lighting,” in Balkan Light 2012, M. Kostić, ed. (Serbian Lighting Society, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012), pp. 109–116.

K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, G. Bizjak, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “LED lighting: influence on age-dependent melatonin secretion and possible retinal damage,” Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. (posted 6February2014, in press).

Rollag, M. D.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

Samson, A.

A. Borbely, A. Samson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated colour temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schanda, J.

A. Borbely, A. Samson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated colour temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schernhammer, E.

K. Schulmeister, M. Weber, W. Bogner, and E. Schernhammer, “Application of melatonin suppression action spectra on practical lighting issues,” in Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health, Orlando, Florida, November3–5, 2002 (EPRI Lighting Research Office, 2003), pp. 169–178.

Schernhammer, E. S.

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schierz, C.

S. Hubalek, M. Brink, and C. Schierz, “Office workers’ daily exposure to light and its influence on sleep quality and mood,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 33–50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, K. H.

V. Kretschmer, K. H. Schmidt, and B. Griefahn, “Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 316–333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schulmeister, K.

K. Schulmeister, M. Weber, W. Bogner, and E. Schernhammer, “Application of melatonin suppression action spectra on practical lighting issues,” in Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health, Orlando, Florida, November3–5, 2002 (EPRI Lighting Research Office, 2003), pp. 169–178.

Seregard, S.

P. V. Algvere, J. Marshall, and S. Seregard, “Age-related maculopathy and the impact of blue light hazard,” Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. 84, 4–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skene, D. J.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin supression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sliney and B. C. Freasier, “Evaluation of optical radiation hazards,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1–24 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sliney, “Ocular hazards of light,” in International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop (Tibbitts, 1994), pp. 183–189.

Smith, V. C.

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stanikunas, R.

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suero, M. I.

Svegzda, A.

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thapan, K.

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin supression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Bommel, W. J. M.

W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viénot, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Viliunas, V.

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warfield, B.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

K. Schulmeister, M. Weber, W. Bogner, and E. Schernhammer, “Application of melatonin suppression action spectra on practical lighting issues,” in Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health, Orlando, Florida, November3–5, 2002 (EPRI Lighting Research Office, 2003), pp. 169–178.

Weinstein, P.

M. Kvaskoff and P. Weinstein, “Are some melanomas caused by artificial light,” Med. Hypoth. 75, 305–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

W. G. K. Backhaus, R. Kliegl, and J. S. Werner, Color Vision (de Gruyter, 1998).

West, K. E.

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

Wyszecki, G.

Yau, K.

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zissis, G.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. (1)

P. V. Algvere, J. Marshall, and S. Seregard, “Age-related maculopathy and the impact of blue light hazard,” Acta Ophtalmol. Scand. 84, 4–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Ergon. (1)

W. J. M. van Bommel, “Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work,” Appl. Ergon. 37, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (2)

A. Borbely, A. Samson, and J. Schanda, “The concept of correlated colour temperature revisited,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 450–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. McCamy, “Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Energy Build. (1)

A. R. Webb, “Considerations for lighting in the built environment: non-visual effects of light,” Energy Build. 38, 721–727 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

K. E. West, M. R. Jablonski, B. Warfield, K. S. Cecil, M. James, M. A. Ayers, J. Maida, C. Bowen, D. H. Sliney, M. D. Rollag, J. P. Hanifin, and G. C. Brainard, “Blue light from light-emitting diodes elicits a dose-dependent suppression of melatonin in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110, 619–626 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Circad. Rhythms (1)

M. S. Rea, M. G. Figueiro, A. Bierman, and J. D. Bullough, “Circadian light,” J. Circad. Rhythms 8, 2 (2010).

J. Neurosci. (1)

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action Spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21, 6405–6412 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin supression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” J. Physiol. 535, 261–267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Light. Res. Technol. (8)

D. Miller, A. Bierman, M. G. Figueiro, E. S. Schernhammer, and M. S. Rea, “Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity and circadian disruption,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 271–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Figueiro and M. S. Rea, “Sleep opportunities and periodic light exposures: impact on biomarkers, performance and sleepiness,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 349–369 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wu, N. C. Hu, Y. C. Fong, H. C. Hsiao, and S. L. Hsiao, “Optimal pruning for selecting LEDs to synthesize tunable illumination spectra,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 484—497 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Viliunas, H. Vaitkevicius, R. Stanikunas, A. Svegzda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Light. Res. Technol. 43, 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Loe, “Correspondence: lighting metrics,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 85–86 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hubalek, M. Brink, and C. Schierz, “Office workers’ daily exposure to light and its influence on sleep quality and mood,” Light. Res. Technol. 42, 33–50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Kretschmer, K. H. Schmidt, and B. Griefahn, “Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers,” Light. Res. Technol. 44, 316–333 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Figueiro, “A proposed 24  h lighting scheme for older adults,” Light. Res. Technol. 40, 153–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. Hypoth. (1)

M. Kvaskoff and P. Weinstein, “Are some melanomas caused by artificial light,” Med. Hypoth. 75, 305–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Lok, “Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469, 284–285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. Fryc, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and Y. Ohno, “LED-based spectrally tunable source for radiometric, photometric, and colorimetric applications,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res. (1)

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Sals, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

D. M. Berson, “Strange vision: ganglion cells as circadian photoreceptors,” Trends Neurosci. 26, 314–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (1)

P. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

W. G. K. Backhaus, R. Kliegl, and J. S. Werner, Color Vision (de Gruyter, 1998).

P. R. Boyce, “The impact of light in buildings on human health,” http://www.zumtobel.com/PDB/teaser/EN/Study_Health_and_Care_StKatharina.pdf .

G. Hausladen, Climate Skin (Birkhäuser, 2008).

C. A. Sust, P. Dehoff, D. Lang, and D. Lorenz, “Improved quality of life for resident dementia patients: St. Katharina research project in Vienna,” http://www.zumtobel.com/PDB/teaser/EN/Study_Health_and_Care_StKatharina.pdf .

P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting (Applied Science, 1981).

L. O. Bjorn, Photobiology: The Science of Life and Light (Springer, 2008).

K. Schulmeister, M. Weber, W. Bogner, and E. Schernhammer, “Application of melatonin suppression action spectra on practical lighting issues,” in Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health, Orlando, Florida, November3–5, 2002 (EPRI Lighting Research Office, 2003), pp. 169–178.

G. Bizjak, K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “Photobiological aspects of LED sources for general lighting,” in Balkan Light 2012, M. Kostić, ed. (Serbian Lighting Society, Belgrade, Serbia, 2012), pp. 109–116.

“Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources,” (CIE, 1995).

http://www.hoyaoptics.com .

“Colorimetry,” 3rd edition, (CIE, 2004).

D. H. Sliney, “Ocular hazards of light,” in International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop (Tibbitts, 1994), pp. 183–189.

K. M. Rebec, M. B. Kobav, G. Bizjak, and M. Klanjšek-Gunde, “LED lighting: influence on age-dependent melatonin secretion and possible retinal damage,” Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. (posted 6February2014, in press).

“Relating photochemical and photobiological quantities to photometric quantities,” Technical note (CIE, 2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Four control SPDs of LED26, LED32, LED50, and LED65 of the heterogeneous LED array obtained as the best match to daylight illuminants D26, D32, D50, and D65. The spectra are normalized to 500 lx.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SPDs of the three CFLxy of Luminous Ceiling [8] and the corresponding daylight illuminants Dxy, normalized to 500 lx.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proportion of radiation responsible for (a) blue-light hazard ηB, (b) cirtopic effect ηC, and (c) photopic vision ηV, calculated for CFL-based and LED-based daylight imitators (grey columns). The values for daylight illuminants Dxy are shown for comparison (black columns).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Blue light hazard factor αB and (b) factor for cirtopic effect αC of luminous radiation calculated for CFL-based and LED-based daylight imitators (grey columns). The corresponding values for daylight illuminant Dxy are shown for comparison (black columns).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of LED26, LED32, LED50, and LED65: Goodness of Fit (R2), the Corresponding CCT Values, and General Color-Rendering Indices Ra8 and Ra14a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters of the Luminous Ceiling Solutions (CFL30, CFL40, and CFL65) Compared to the Corresponding Dxy Illuminants: Goodness of Fit (R2), CCT Values, and General Color-Rendering Indices Ra8 and Ra14a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LEDxy(λ)=iAiSbi(λ)Ti(λ)+jAjScj(λ),
ηB=λS(λ)·B(λ)·ΔλλS(λ)·Δλ,
ηC=λS(λ)·C(λ)·ΔλλS(λ)·Δλ,
ηV=λS(λ)·V(λ)·ΔλλS(λ)·Δλ,
αB=λS(λ)·B(λ)·ΔλλS(λ)·V(λ)·Δλ=ηBηV,
αC=λS(λ)·C(λ)·ΔλλS(λ)·V(λ)·Δλ=ηCηV.

Metrics