Abstract

We have demonstrated the passive Q-switching mode-locking operation in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using topological insulator Bi2Se3 deposited on fiber taper, whose damage threshold can be further increased by the large evanescent field interacting length. Due to the low saturation intensity, stable Q-switched mode-locked fiber lasers centered at 1562 nm can be generated at a pump power of 10 mW. The temporal and spectral characteristics for different pump strengths have also been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time a Q-switched mode-locked EDF laser based on the fiber taper deposited by Bi2Se3 was generated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2014

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso and Z. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2D crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 63–78 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22, 6165–6173 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  mm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, T. Zhu, J. Zeng, and H. Wei, “A passively mode-locked fiber laser only based on D-shaped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2427–2430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Universal soliton pattern formations in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1545–1547 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, “Hysteresis phenomena and multipulse formation of a dissipative system in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 023811 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, “Mechanism of high-energy pulse generation without wave breaking in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2003

A. Bellemare, “Continuous-wave silica-based erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 211–266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abramski,

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Amrani, F.

Au, J. A. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellemare, A.

A. Bellemare, “Continuous-wave silica-based erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 211–266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  mm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  mm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ermeneux, S.

Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

Fang, F.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Grodecki, K.

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X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

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Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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Huang, H.

Huang, Y.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  mm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
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Jiang, G.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Jun, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
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C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
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Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
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Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Li, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
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Liao, Y. S.

Limpert, J.

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  mm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).

Linke, S.

Liu, C.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Liu, M.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

X. Liu, “Mechanism of high-energy pulse generation without wave breaking in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053808 (2010).
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X. Liu, “Hysteresis phenomena and multipulse formation of a dissipative system in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 023811 (2010).
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Lu, H.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Lu, H. H.

Lu, S.

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  mm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mao, D.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Paletko, P.

Paschotta, R.

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. L.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, M.

Salin, F.

Sanchez, F.

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Schreiber, T.

Shen, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso and Z. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2D crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 63–78 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, P.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

Tang, P. H.

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

X. Liu, D. Han, Z. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. Cui, and F. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

Wang, Y.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. T.

Wei, H.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, J. Zeng, and H. Wei, “A passively mode-locked fiber laser only based on D-shaped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2427–2430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jun, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. D. Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Xu, W. C.

Ye, C.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
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Zeng, J.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, J. Zeng, and H. Wei, “A passively mode-locked fiber laser only based on D-shaped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2427–2430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
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H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
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Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

Zhao, C.

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21, 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20, 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. J.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

Zhou, M.

Zhu, T.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, J. Zeng, and H. Wei, “A passively mode-locked fiber laser only based on D-shaped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2427–2430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
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Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Hang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2  μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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IEEE Photon. J.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 1500707 (2013).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Wu, Y. Li, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator covered microfiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 987–990 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, T. Zhu, J. Zeng, and H. Wei, “A passively mode-locked fiber laser only based on D-shaped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 2427–2430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Wang, H. Cheng, Z. Cai, and C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1539–1542 (2012).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11, 055102 (2014).
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Nat. Phys.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, F. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5, 438–442 (2009).
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Opt. Mater. Express

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Microscopic image of the Bi2Se3 flakes. Inset shows the transparent Bi2Se3 solution, (b) Raman spectrum of Bi2Se3. (c) Transmission spectra of the fiber taper before and after Bi2Se3 deposition. Insets are the microscope image of tapered fiber deposited with Bi2Se3 and the simulated electromagnetic field of LP01 mode. (d) Nonlinear transmission characteristic of the SA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the fiber-ring laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Characteristics of Q-switched mode-locked fiber lasers. (a) Total output powers under different pump powers. (b) Temporal pulse train with pump power at 330 mW. The inset shows the pulse train in a larger range. (c) Corresponding optical spectrum with an FWHM of 2.5 nm. (d) Corresponding RF spectra with different ranges where a Q-switched frequency of 44.3 kHz and fundamental mode-locking frequency of 8.02 MHz are shown. The Q-switched frequency is recorded with a frequency span of 100 kHz. The lower inset is part of the upper inset, and due to the limited resolution of the frequency analyzer used, only the mode-locking frequency is shown when the span is set as 350 MHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pump-dependent characteristics of a Q-switched mode-locked laser. (a) Repetition rate and pulse width versus pump power. (b) FWHM and the center wavelength of lasing wavelength versus pump power. They are both fitted exponentially.

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