Abstract

Using high-quality single-layer graphene as a saturable absorber, Tm:YAlO3 (Tm:YAP) crystal as the gain medium, we demonstrated a laser-diode-pumped, compact, passively Q-switched (PQS) solid-state laser in the 2 μm region. The maximum average output power was 362 mW, with the corresponding largest pulse repetition rate and pulse energy of 42.4 kHz and 8.5 μJ, respectively. Under the same pump power, the pulse width of 735 ns was obtained, which is, to our best knowledge, the shortest pulse width among Tm-doped solid-state PQS lasers using graphene saturable absorber mirrors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (6)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. Kim, Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, and H. L. Stormer, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fibre laser near 2.l  μm by a Cr2+: ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Casiraghi, C.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, T. L.

Ferrari, C.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C. Q.

Gao, W. L.

Geim, A. K.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geim, K.

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. W.

Hao, X. P.

He, J. L.

Hong, B. H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

Jiang, D.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, P.

P. Kim, Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, and H. L. Stormer, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fibre laser near 2.l  μm by a Cr2+: ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lazzeri, M.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. C.

Li, D. H.

Li, G.

Li, G. Q.

Li, X. L.

Lin, J. J.

Liu, S. D.

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lv, P.

Ma, J.

Mauri, F.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. C.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, D.

Petrov, V.

Piscanec, S.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qamar, F. Z.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fibre laser near 2.l  μm by a Cr2+: ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L. J.

Qiao, W. C.

Rotermund, F.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500  nm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stormer, H. L.

P. Kim, Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, and H. L. Stormer, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, L. B.

Tan, Y. W.

P. Kim, Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, and H. L. Stormer, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Teng, H.

Tian, Y.

Tonelli, M.

Veronesi, S.

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Q. G.

Wang, R.

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Z.

Wei, Z. Y.

Wu, Y. Z.

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, J.

Xu, J. L.

Xu, X. D.

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

Yang, Y.

Yao, B. Q.

Yeom, D.-I.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

Yuan, P.

Zhang, B. T.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. B.

P. Kim, Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, and H. L. Stormer, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, S. Z.

Zheng, L. H.

Zou, Y. W.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Kim, Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, and H. L. Stormer, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fibre laser near 2.l  μm by a Cr2+: ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the PQS laser based on graphene SAM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output power versus pump power in CW and PQS operation regime.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectrum of the CW (right) and PQS (left) laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured absorption rate of the pump power passed through graphene. (Inset) Image of the graphene SAM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectrum of the graphene after subtracting the signal of the CaF substrate.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a)–(c) Pulse trains of the PQS laser under different pump power. (d) The shortest pulse width.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Repetition rate and pulse width of the PQS laser as function of pump power.

Metrics