Abstract

A fiber-taper-microsphere-coupled system was used to research the characteristics of laser oscillation and upconversion luminescence of Yb3+:Er3+ co-doped phosphosilicate (YECP) microspheres. The YECP microspheres were fabricated by melting the end of phosphosilicate filaments. Single- and multimode laser oscillation at 1535–1565 nm within the C-band were obtained. In addition, the output power of the single-mode laser at 1545.5 nm can be as high as 48.98 μW, which was achieved under pump power of 9.63 mW, and the side-mode suppression ratio was 51.49 dB. Upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ at 521, 532, and 544 nm also were measured, and the pump power dependence was studied. The fluorescence intensity was lower than that of Yb3+:Er3+ co-doped silica and oxyfluoride glass ceramic microspheres. Moreover, the physical mechanism of upconversion suppression and laser oscillation enhancement observed in our experiment was presented, which is beneficial to the preparation of rare-earth-doped microcavity lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

Y. T. Huang, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb3+ doped silica microsphere,” AIP Advances 4, 027113 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

2013

Y. T. Huang, P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. L. Guo, “Triple and double photons absorption process and down-conversion laser emitting investigation of Er-ion doped microsphere,” J. Mod. Phys. 4, 1622–1626 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. L. Guo, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of cascaded Raman scattering laser in silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm laser,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 24207 (2013).

C. L. Guo, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of laser emission from Er3+-doped silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm light,” Chin. J. Las. 40, 0302004 (2013).

Y. T. Huang, C. L. Guo, R. Y. Bao, and X. H. Wang, “Design and fabrication of a silica optical micro-kayak cavity on a silicon chip,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 052201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. B. Li, S. Y. Gao, and L. L. Fu, “Quantum-information transfer with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Shi, Y. G. Zhao, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Role of PbO substitution by Bi2O3 on 1.47  μm luminescence properties of Tm3+/Tb3+ doped Bi2O3–GeO2–Ga2O3 glass,” J. Alloys Compounds 499, 126–130 (2010).

2009

N. Q. Nguyen, N. Gupta, T. Ioppolo, and M. V. Ötügen, “Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural health monitoring of composite materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1560–1571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Yu, X. Zhao, C. M. Li, and H. Lin, “Infrared spectrum estimation for maximum phonon energy in optical glasses,” J. Dalian Polytechnic University 27, 155–157 (2008).

2006

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

2005

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1–7 (2001).

M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient hybrid fiber taper coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 114–116 (2001).

2000

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

1997

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1129–1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

Ajroud, M.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

Almeida, R. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

Bao, R. Y.

Barbier, D.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

Ben Ouada, H.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

Birks, T. A.

Brenier, A.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

Cai, M.

M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient hybrid fiber taper coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 114–116 (2001).

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

Carmon, T.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassanjes, F. C.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Champagnon, B.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

Chen, B.

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

Chen, D. D.

M. Shi, Y. G. Zhao, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Role of PbO substitution by Bi2O3 on 1.47  μm luminescence properties of Tm3+/Tb3+ doped Bi2O3–GeO2–Ga2O3 glass,” J. Alloys Compounds 499, 126–130 (2010).

Cheung, G.

Dai, S. X.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

de Araújo, M. T.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

Diening, A.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. H.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, P. V.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Du, X. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

Duan, Z. C.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

Fintaine, N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. L.

P. B. Li, S. Y. Gao, and L. L. Fu, “Quantum-information transfer with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S. Y.

P. B. Li, S. Y. Gao, and L. L. Fu, “Quantum-information transfer with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goh, K. W.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia, E. A.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C. L.

Y. T. Huang, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb3+ doped silica microsphere,” AIP Advances 4, 027113 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

Y. T. Huang, P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. L. Guo, “Triple and double photons absorption process and down-conversion laser emitting investigation of Er-ion doped microsphere,” J. Mod. Phys. 4, 1622–1626 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. L. Guo, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of cascaded Raman scattering laser in silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm laser,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 24207 (2013).

C. L. Guo, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of laser emission from Er3+-doped silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm light,” Chin. J. Las. 40, 0302004 (2013).

Y. T. Huang, C. L. Guo, R. Y. Bao, and X. H. Wang, “Design and fabrication of a silica optical micro-kayak cavity on a silicon chip,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 052201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

N. Q. Nguyen, N. Gupta, T. Ioppolo, and M. V. Ötügen, “Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural health monitoring of composite materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1560–1571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. F.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haouari, M.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

Haus, H.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1–7 (2001).

Hayden, J. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Houde-Walter, S. N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L. L.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

Huang, J.

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

Huang, S.

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

Huang, Y.

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

Y. T. Huang, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb3+ doped silica microsphere,” AIP Advances 4, 027113 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. L. Guo, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of cascaded Raman scattering laser in silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm laser,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 24207 (2013).

C. L. Guo, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of laser emission from Er3+-doped silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm light,” Chin. J. Las. 40, 0302004 (2013).

Y. T. Huang, P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. L. Guo, “Triple and double photons absorption process and down-conversion laser emitting investigation of Er-ion doped microsphere,” J. Mod. Phys. 4, 1622–1626 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. T.

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

Y. T. Huang, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb3+ doped silica microsphere,” AIP Advances 4, 027113 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Guo, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of laser emission from Er3+-doped silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm light,” Chin. J. Las. 40, 0302004 (2013).

P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. L. Guo, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of cascaded Raman scattering laser in silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm laser,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 24207 (2013).

Y. T. Huang, P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. L. Guo, “Triple and double photons absorption process and down-conversion laser emitting investigation of Er-ion doped microsphere,” J. Mod. Phys. 4, 1622–1626 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Huang, C. L. Guo, R. Y. Bao, and X. H. Wang, “Design and fabrication of a silica optical micro-kayak cavity on a silicon chip,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 052201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ioppolo, T.

N. Q. Nguyen, N. Gupta, T. Ioppolo, and M. V. Ötügen, “Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural health monitoring of composite materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1560–1571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Jensen, T.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. S.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kuleshov, N. V.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1–7 (2001).

Li, C. M.

X. B. Yu, X. Zhao, C. M. Li, and H. Lin, “Infrared spectrum estimation for maximum phonon energy in optical glasses,” J. Dalian Polytechnic University 27, 155–157 (2008).

Li, P. B.

P. B. Li, S. Y. Gao, and L. L. Fu, “Quantum-information transfer with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

X. B. Yu, X. Zhao, C. M. Li, and H. Lin, “Infrared spectrum estimation for maximum phonon energy in optical glasses,” J. Dalian Polytechnic University 27, 155–157 (2008).

Little, B.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1–7 (2001).

Liu, W.-C.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mâaref, H.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+-Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., C 26, 523–529 (2006).

McCarthy, O.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

Messaddeq, Y.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. Q.

N. Q. Nguyen, N. Gupta, T. Ioppolo, and M. V. Ötügen, “Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural health monitoring of composite materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1560–1571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Obarski, G. E.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orignac, X.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

Ötügen, M. V.

N. Q. Nguyen, N. Gupta, T. Ioppolo, and M. V. Ötügen, “Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural health monitoring of composite materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1560–1571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peskon, A. P.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, P. M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Q.

M. Shi, Y. G. Zhao, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Role of PbO substitution by Bi2O3 on 1.47  μm luminescence properties of Tm3+/Tb3+ doped Bi2O3–GeO2–Ga2O3 glass,” J. Alloys Compounds 499, 126–130 (2010).

Qin, W.

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, M.

M. Shi, Y. G. Zhao, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Role of PbO substitution by Bi2O3 on 1.47  μm luminescence properties of Tm3+/Tb3+ doped Bi2O3–GeO2–Ga2O3 glass,” J. Alloys Compounds 499, 126–130 (2010).

Simpson, J. R.

Spillane, S. M.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. T.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

Tapalian, C.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1–7 (2001).

Tong, L. M.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient hybrid fiber taper coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 114–116 (2001).

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28, 592–594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veasey, D. L.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vermelho, M. V. D.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064  μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772–6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

Wang, X. H.

Wen, L.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

Wilcut, E.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. J.

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

Xiao, Y. F.

C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, X. S. Jiang, L. M. Tong, C. Gu, and H. Ming, “Low-threshold microlaser in Er:Yb phosphate glass coated microsphere,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 342–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

B. Chen, H. Wang, W. Qin, W. Cao, W. Xu, and S. Huang, “Fluoride-oxide glass for high efficiency upconversion from IR to green,” Spectro. Spectral Anal 20, 257–259 (2000).

Yang, L.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28, 592–594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5  μm,” Opt. Mater. 12, 1–18 (1999).

Young, M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fintaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskon, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, “Yb/Er-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264, 369–381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. L.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

Yu, X. B.

X. B. Yu, X. Zhao, C. M. Li, and H. Lin, “Infrared spectrum estimation for maximum phonon energy in optical glasses,” J. Dalian Polytechnic University 27, 155–157 (2008).

Zhang, J. J.

H. T. Sun, C. L. Yu, Z. C. Duan, L. Wen, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and S. X. Dai, “Optical transitions of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in novel oxyfluoride bismuth-germanium glass: observation of up-conversion,” Opt. Mater. 28, 448–452 (2006).

Zhang, P. J.

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

Y. T. Huang, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb3+ doped silica microsphere,” AIP Advances 4, 027113 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Huang, P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, and C. L. Guo, “Triple and double photons absorption process and down-conversion laser emitting investigation of Er-ion doped microsphere,” J. Mod. Phys. 4, 1622–1626 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. L. Guo, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of cascaded Raman scattering laser in silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm laser,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 24207 (2013).

C. L. Guo, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of laser emission from Er3+-doped silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm light,” Chin. J. Las. 40, 0302004 (2013).

Zhang, Q. Y.

M. Shi, Y. G. Zhao, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Role of PbO substitution by Bi2O3 on 1.47  μm luminescence properties of Tm3+/Tb3+ doped Bi2O3–GeO2–Ga2O3 glass,” J. Alloys Compounds 499, 126–130 (2010).

Zhao, X.

X. B. Yu, X. Zhao, C. M. Li, and H. Lin, “Infrared spectrum estimation for maximum phonon energy in optical glasses,” J. Dalian Polytechnic University 27, 155–157 (2008).

Zhao, Y. G.

M. Shi, Y. G. Zhao, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Role of PbO substitution by Bi2O3 on 1.47  μm luminescence properties of Tm3+/Tb3+ doped Bi2O3–GeO2–Ga2O3 glass,” J. Alloys Compounds 499, 126–130 (2010).

Acta Phys. Sin.

P. J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. L. Guo, and Y. T. Huang, “Study of cascaded Raman scattering laser in silica microsphere pumped by 976  nm laser,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 24207 (2013).

J. Huang, Y. T. Huang, T. J. Wu, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “The study of luminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic microsphere with the tapered fiber-microsphere coupling system,” Acta Phys. Sin. 63, 127802 (2014).

AIP Advances

Y. T. Huang, Y. Huang, P. J. Zhang, and C. L. Guo, “Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb3+ doped silica microsphere,” AIP Advances 4, 027113 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Erbium-doped and Raman microsphere on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Las.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication process of the YECP microsphere.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of measurement setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Single-mode laser oscillation with pump power of 9.63 mW; inset describes the single-mode laser at 1545.5 nm in detail.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output power versus the absorbed power for the single-mode lasing at 1545.5 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Multimode laser oscillation spectrum from 1535 to 1565 nm under pump power of 5.41 mW.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of energy-level diagram of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Luminescence spectra from 510 to 580 nm of the YECP microsphere.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Pump power dependence of upconversion luminescence intensity at 976 nm in the YECP microsphere.

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