Abstract

Finger vein images are rich in orientation and edge features. Inspired by the edge histogram descriptor proposed in MPEG-7, this paper presents an efficient orientation-based local descriptor, named histogram of salient edge orientation map (HSEOM). HSEOM is based on the fact that human vision is sensitive to edge features for image perception. For a given image, HSEOM first finds oriented edge maps according to predefined orientations using a well-known edge operator and obtains a salient edge orientation map by choosing an orientation with the maximum edge magnitude for each pixel. Then, subhistograms of the salient edge orientation map are generated from the nonoverlapping submaps and concatenated to build the final HSEOM. In the experiment of this paper, eight oriented edge maps were used to generate a salient edge orientation map for HSEOM construction. Experimental results on our available finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, show that the performance of HSEOM outperforms that of state-of-the-art orientation-based methods (e.g., Gabor filter, histogram of oriented gradients, and local directional code). Furthermore, the proposed HSEOM has advantages of low feature dimensionality and fast implementation for a real-time finger vein recognition system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Yang and Y. H. Shi, “Towards finger-vein image restoration and enhancement for finger-vein recognition,” Inf. Sci. 268, 33–52 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Y. Wang, G. Leedham, and D. S.-Y. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 920–929 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Y. Tang, H. Y. Zhang, A. W. K. Kong, and N. Craft, “Visualizing vein patterns from color skin images based on image mapping for forensics analysis,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2012), pp. 2387–2390.
  5. Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).
  6. Y. Xin, Z. Liu, H. X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6252–6258 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. K. Park, Y. S. Jeon, C. S. Won, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of local edge histogram descriptor,” in Proceedings of the ACM workshops on Multimedia (2000), pp. 51–54.
  8. X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. K. Jian and A. Vailaya, “Image retrieval using color and shape,” Pattern Recogn. 29, 1233–1244 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 971–987 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2005), pp. 886–893.
  12. C. S. Won, D. K. Park, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” ETRI J. 24, 23–30 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).
  14. K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Kumar and Y. B. Zhou, “Human identification using finger images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 2228–2244 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. H. Shi, “Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration,” Sensors 12, 3627–3640 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60, 91–110 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.
  19. Finger vein image database MMCBNU_6000: http://multilab.chonbuk.ac.kr/ .
  20. Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.
  22. J. F. Yang and X. Li, “Efficient finger vein localization and recognition,” in Proceedings of 21th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2010), pp. 1148–1151.

2014 (1)

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

2013 (3)

J. F. Yang and Y. H. Shi, “Towards finger-vein image restoration and enhancement for finger-vein recognition,” Inf. Sci. 268, 33–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

A. Kumar and Y. B. Zhou, “Human identification using finger images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 2228–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. H. Shi, “Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration,” Sensors 12, 3627–3640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xin, Z. Liu, H. X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6252–6258 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).

2010 (1)

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Y. Wang, G. Leedham, and D. S.-Y. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60, 91–110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 971–987 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Won, D. K. Park, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” ETRI J. 24, 23–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. K. Jian and A. Vailaya, “Image retrieval using color and shape,” Pattern Recogn. 29, 1233–1244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-P.

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K.-C.

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. S.-Y.

L. Y. Wang, G. Leedham, and D. S.-Y. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craft, N.

C. Y. Tang, H. Y. Zhang, A. W. K. Kong, and N. Craft, “Visualizing vein patterns from color skin images based on image mapping for forensics analysis,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2012), pp. 2387–2390.

Dalal, N.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2005), pp. 886–893.

Farooq, A. A.

S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).

Islam, M. M.

S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).

Jeon, Y. S.

D. K. Park, Y. S. Jeon, C. S. Won, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of local edge histogram descriptor,” in Proceedings of the ACM workshops on Multimedia (2000), pp. 51–54.

Jeong, K. S.

K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jian, A. K.

A. K. Jian and A. Vailaya, “Image retrieval using color and shape,” Pattern Recogn. 29, 1233–1244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jin, M. Y.

K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kong, A. W. K.

C. Y. Tang, H. Y. Zhang, A. W. K. Kong, and N. Craft, “Visualizing vein patterns from color skin images based on image mapping for forensics analysis,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2012), pp. 2387–2390.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and Y. B. Zhou, “Human identification using finger images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 2228–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-C.

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leedham, G.

L. Y. Wang, G. Leedham, and D. S.-Y. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. F. Yang and X. Li, “Efficient finger vein localization and recognition,” in Proceedings of 21th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2010), pp. 1148–1151.

Liu, Z.

Lo, T.-M.

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, D. G.

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60, 91–110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.

S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.

Maenpaa, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 971–987 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. J.

X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Naim, S. M.

S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).

Ojala, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 971–987 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. K.

C. S. Won, D. K. Park, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” ETRI J. 24, 23–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Park, Y. S. Jeon, C. S. Won, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of local edge histogram descriptor,” in Proceedings of the ACM workshops on Multimedia (2000), pp. 51–54.

Park, D. S.

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.

Park, S. J.

C. S. Won, D. K. Park, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” ETRI J. 24, 23–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Park, Y. S. Jeon, C. S. Won, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of local edge histogram descriptor,” in Proceedings of the ACM workshops on Multimedia (2000), pp. 51–54.

Pietikainen, M.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 971–987 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, S.

S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).

Shi, Y. H.

J. F. Yang and Y. H. Shi, “Towards finger-vein image restoration and enhancement for finger-vein recognition,” Inf. Sci. 268, 33–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. H. Shi, “Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration,” Sensors 12, 3627–3640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. Y.

C. Y. Tang, H. Y. Zhang, A. W. K. Kong, and N. Craft, “Visualizing vein patterns from color skin images based on image mapping for forensics analysis,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2012), pp. 2387–2390.

Triggs, B.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2005), pp. 886–893.

Vailaya, A.

A. K. Jian and A. Vailaya, “Image retrieval using color and shape,” Pattern Recogn. 29, 1233–1244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. Y.

L. Y. Wang, G. Leedham, and D. S.-Y. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.

Won, C. S.

C. S. Won, D. K. Park, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” ETRI J. 24, 23–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Park, Y. S. Jeon, C. S. Won, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of local edge histogram descriptor,” in Proceedings of the ACM workshops on Multimedia (2000), pp. 51–54.

Wu, K.-S.

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, R. Y.

X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S. J.

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.

S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.

Xin, Y.

Yang, G. P.

X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. C.

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.

Yang, J. F.

J. F. Yang and Y. H. Shi, “Towards finger-vein image restoration and enhancement for finger-vein recognition,” Inf. Sci. 268, 33–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. H. Shi, “Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration,” Sensors 12, 3627–3640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Yang and X. Li, “Efficient finger vein localization and recognition,” in Proceedings of 21th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2010), pp. 1148–1151.

Yin, Y. L.

X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.

S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.

Zhang, B.

J. F. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. H. Shi, “Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration,” Sensors 12, 3627–3640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. X.

Zhang, H. Y.

C. Y. Tang, H. Y. Zhang, A. W. K. Kong, and N. Craft, “Visualizing vein patterns from color skin images based on image mapping for forensics analysis,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2012), pp. 2387–2390.

Zhou, Y. B.

A. Kumar and Y. B. Zhou, “Human identification using finger images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 2228–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

ETRI J. (1)

C. S. Won, D. K. Park, and S. J. Park, “Efficient use of MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” ETRI J. 24, 23–30 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

A. Kumar and Y. B. Zhou, “Human identification using finger images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 2228–2244 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 971–987 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inf. Sci. (1)

J. F. Yang and Y. H. Shi, “Towards finger-vein image restoration and enhancement for finger-vein recognition,” Inf. Sci. 268, 33–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60, 91–110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Multimedia (1)

S. Rahman, S. M. Naim, A. A. Farooq, and M. M. Islam, “Performance of PCA based semi-supervised learning in face recognition using MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor,” J. Multimedia 6, 404–415 (2011).

J. Syst. Softw. (1)

K.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, T.-M. Lo, K.-C. Chang, and C.-P. Chang, “A secure palm vein recognition system,” J. Syst. Softw. 86, 2870–2876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

KSII Trans. Internet Inf. (1)

Y. Lu, S. Yoon, S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, Z. H. Wang, and D. S. Park, “Finger vein identification using generalized local line binary pattern,” KSII Trans. Internet Inf. 8, 1766–1784 (2014).

Pattern Recogn. (2)

A. K. Jian and A. Vailaya, “Image retrieval using color and shape,” Pattern Recogn. 29, 1233–1244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Wang, G. Leedham, and D. S.-Y. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recogn. 41, 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. S. Jeong, M. Y. Jin, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “Real-time oriented edge detection via difference of shifted image,” Proc. SPIE 9067, 906716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (3)

J. F. Yang, B. Zhang, and Y. H. Shi, “Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration,” Sensors 12, 3627–3640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Meng, G. P. Yang, Y. L. Yin, and R. Y. Xiao, “Finger vein recognition based on local directional code,” Sensors 12, 14937–14952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, S. Yoon, J. C. Yang, and D. S. Park, “Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation,” Sensors 13, 14339–14366 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

S. J. Xie, J. C. Yang, S. Yoon, Y. Lu, and D. S. Park, “Guided Gabor filter for finger vein pattern extraction,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS) (2012), pp. 118–123.

J. F. Yang and X. Li, “Efficient finger vein localization and recognition,” in Proceedings of 21th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) (2010), pp. 1148–1151.

Y. Lu, S. J. Xie, Z. H. Wang, S. Yoon, and D. S. Park, “An available database for the research of finger vein recognition,” in Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP) (2013), pp. 410–415.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Definition of subimage and image block used in EHD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Five edge operators with different orientations defined in EHD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of edge detection using different edge operators: (a) input finger vein ROI samples and outputs from different edge operators: (b) EHD, (c) extended Robert, (d) extended Laplacian, (e) extended Prewitt, (f) extended Sobel, (g) Kirsch, and (h) Robinson.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Overview of the proposed HSEOM extraction: (a) block diagram and (b) an example of HSEOM extraction from a finger vein ROI image.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lab-made finger vein imaging device: (a) the lab-made portable finger vein imaging device, and (b) an example of image collection for the left forefinger.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

EERs varying with partition styles and edge operators: (a) EERs varying with partition styles and edge operators, (b) ROC curves of different edge operators with partition style 5×7, and (c) ROC curves of different partition styles with edge operator of extended Prewitt.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of EER values with different partition styles.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ROC curves achieved using different methods.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. EERs of Different Methods

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Table 2. Comparisons of Average Processing Time and Feature Dimensionality

Equations (10)

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Kirsch:[533503533],[333503553],[333303555],,[553503333],
Robinson:[101202101],[012101210],[121000121],,[210101012].
h1R=[000011000],h2R=[001010000],hkR,,h8R=[000010001],
h1P=[001031001],h2P=[011031000],hkP,,h8P=[000031011],
h1L=[001020001],h2L=[010021000],hkL,,h8L=[000021010],
h1S=[001042001],h2S=[012041000],hkS,,h8S=[000041012],
Mk(x,y)=I(x,y)*hk,k=1,2,3,,8,
S(x,y)=[argkmaxMk(x,y)],k=1,2,3,,8,
Length(HSEOMLocal)=m×n×8.
Ht=Ht/Ht22+ε2.

Metrics