Abstract

Motivated by the need to increase the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of nonlinear optics with large apertures, a novel mounting configuration with active adjusting function on the SHG efficiency is proposed and mechanically and optically studied. The adjusting effects of the mounting force on the distortion and stress are analyzed by the finite element methods (FEM), as well as the contribution of the distortion and stress to the change in phase mismatch, and the SHG efficiency are theoretically stated. Further on, the SHG efficiency is calculated as a function of the mounting force. The changing trends of the distortion, stress, and the SHG efficiency with the varying mounting force are obtained, and the optimal ones are figured out. Moreover, the mechanism of the occurrence of the optimal values is studied and the adjusting strategy is put forward. Numerical results show the robust adjustment of the mounting force, as well as the effectiveness of the mounting configuration, in increasing the SHG efficiency.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

A. H. Li, Z. Luan, Y. M. Bian, and L. R. Liu, “Integrated analysis of strap mount for a circular mirror,” Optik 122, 1584–1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, “Distributed actuators deformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3467–3473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Li and B. Zhang, “Analysis of broadband third harmonic generation with non-collinear angular dispersion in KDP crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2271–2278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhao, Z. F. Cheng, and D. P. Shi, “Influence of third-order nonlinear and phase variations on third harmonic generation,” Optik 119, 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Lubin and C. Gouedard, “Modeling of the effects of KDP crystals gravity sag on third harmonic generation,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 802–808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinrich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adam, C. H.

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3276–3303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barker, C. E.

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bia, Y. M.

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bian, Y. M.

A. H. Li, Z. Luan, Y. M. Bian, and L. R. Liu, “Integrated analysis of strap mount for a circular mirror,” Optik 122, 1584–1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biggs, B.

A. Nordt, M. Jacoby, B. Biggs, T. Kvamme, and T. Cahoon, “NIRCam fold mirror and mount designs,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonora, S.

S. Bonora, “Distributed actuators deformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3467–3473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora and L. Poletto, “Push–pull membrane mirrors for adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 14, 11935–11944 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonvallet, J. A.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M. W.

Bumpas, S. E.

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cahoon, T.

A. Nordt, M. Jacoby, B. Biggs, T. Kvamme, and T. Cahoon, “NIRCam fold mirror and mount designs,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cardoso, L.

Chapman, I. V.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. B.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. F.

H. J. Zhao, Z. F. Cheng, and D. P. Shi, “Influence of third-order nonlinear and phase variations on third harmonic generation,” Optik 119, 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couture, S. A.

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dang, Z.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J. J.

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S. N.

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics Crystals (Springer, 1999), pp. 48–65.

Eimerl, D.

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Elswijk, E.

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G. V.

Feller, G. S.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, B.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

Figueira, G.

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinrich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Geissel, M.

Glur, H.

Gouedard, C.

O. Lubin and C. Gouedard, “Modeling of the effects of KDP crystals gravity sag on third harmonic generation,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 802–808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, U. J.

Guo, L. F.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics Crystals (Springer, 1999), pp. 48–65.

Hackel, L. A.

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanenburg, H.

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haynam, C. A.

Haynes, M. M.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Headley, D.

J. Schwarz, M. Ramsey, I. Smith, D. Headley, and J. Porter, “Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror,” Opt. Commun. 264, 203–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M. R.

Hibbard, R. L.

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hibbard, M. A. Norton, and P. J. Wegner, “The design of precision mounts for optimizing the conversion efficiency of KDP crystals for the National Ignition Facility,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report, (1998).

Hill, A. E.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinrich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hix, T. T.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, H. C.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hom, C. L.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D. X.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H. S.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, J. W.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, M.

E. T. Kvamme and M. Jacoby, “A second generation low stress cryogenic mount for space-borne lithium fluoride optics,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920I (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nordt, M. Jacoby, B. Biggs, T. Kvamme, and T. Cahoon, “NIRCam fold mirror and mount designs,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jancaitis, K. S.

Jiang, X. C.

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jing, F.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Klingenberg, H. H.

Kragt, J.

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kroes, G.

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kvamme, E. T.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Kvamme and M. Jacoby, “A second generation low stress cryogenic mount for space-borne lithium fluoride optics,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920I (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kvamme, T.

A. Nordt, M. Jacoby, B. Biggs, T. Kvamme, and T. Cahoon, “NIRCam fold mirror and mount designs,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. L.

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, A. H.

A. H. Li, Z. Luan, Y. M. Bian, and L. R. Liu, “Integrated analysis of strap mount for a circular mirror,” Optik 122, 1584–1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, A. L.

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li and B. Zhang, “Analysis of broadband third harmonic generation with non-collinear angular dispersion in KDP crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2271–2278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. H.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lindstrom, O. F.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liou, L. W.

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Q.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. R.

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Z. Luan, Y. M. Bian, and L. R. Liu, “Integrated analysis of strap mount for a circular mirror,” Optik 122, 1584–1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lomax, C.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lope, N.

Luan, Z.

A. H. Li, Z. Luan, Y. M. Bian, and L. R. Liu, “Integrated analysis of strap mount for a circular mirror,” Optik 122, 1584–1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lubin, O.

O. Lubin and C. Gouedard, “Modeling of the effects of KDP crystals gravity sag on third harmonic generation,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 802–808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K. R.

Marshall, C. D.

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Milam, D.

Morrett, J. C.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E.

Murray, J.

Navarro, R.

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics Crystals (Springer, 1999), pp. 48–65.

Nordt, A.

A. Nordt, M. Jacoby, B. Biggs, T. Kvamme, and T. Cahoon, “NIRCam fold mirror and mount designs,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M. A.

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hibbard, M. A. Norton, and P. J. Wegner, “The design of precision mounts for optimizing the conversion efficiency of KDP crystals for the National Ignition Facility,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report, (1998).

Nostrand, M. C.

Orth, C. D.

Patterson, R.

Peng, Z. T.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Perfect, S. A.

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinrich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pires, H.

Poletto, L.

Porter, J.

J. Schwarz, M. Ramsey, I. Smith, D. Headley, and J. Porter, “Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror,” Opt. Commun. 264, 203–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwarz, M. Geissel, P. Rambo, and J. Porter, “Development of a variable focal length concave mirror for on-shot thermal lens correction in rod amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 10957–10969 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rambo, P.

Ramsey, M.

J. Schwarz, M. Ramsey, I. Smith, D. Headley, and J. Porter, “Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror,” Opt. Commun. 264, 203–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. H.

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Romano, V.

Roth, M. S.

Ryder, L. A.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, R. A.

Saggin, B.

Scaccabarozzi, D.

Schwarz, J.

J. Schwarz, M. Geissel, P. Rambo, and J. Porter, “Development of a variable focal length concave mirror for on-shot thermal lens correction in rod amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 10957–10969 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwarz, M. Ramsey, I. Smith, D. Headley, and J. Porter, “Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror,” Opt. Commun. 264, 203–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

Shi, D. P.

H. J. Zhao, Z. F. Cheng, and D. P. Shi, “Influence of third-order nonlinear and phase variations on third harmonic generation,” Optik 119, 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I.

J. Schwarz, M. Ramsey, I. Smith, D. Headley, and J. Porter, “Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror,” Opt. Commun. 264, 203–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, M.

Stubbs, D. M.

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. F.

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S. B.

Tarabini, M.

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Wang, J. J.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

Wegner, P. J.

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3276–3303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, P. J. Wegner, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, R. L. Hibbard, D. Milam, M. A. Norton, P. K. Whitman, and L. A. Hackel, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with measured crystal spatial refractive index nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1404–1411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hibbard, M. A. Norton, and P. J. Wegner, “The design of precision mounts for optimizing the conversion efficiency of KDP crystals for the National Ignition Facility,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report, (1998).

Wei, X. F.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weinrich, G.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinrich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wemans, J.

White, R. K.

Whitman, P. K.

Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, W. H.

Wyss, E. W.

Xu, Z. L.

Z. L. Xu, Elasticity (Higher Education, 2006), Chap. 13. (in Chinese).

Yang, S. T.

Yao, J. Q.

J. Q. Yao, Nonlinear Optical Frequency Conversion and Laser Tuning Technology (Science, 1995), Chap. 1. (in Chinese).

Zhang, B.

K. Li and B. Zhang, “Analysis of broadband third harmonic generation with non-collinear angular dispersion in KDP crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2271–2278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. J.

H. J. Zhao, Z. F. Cheng, and D. P. Shi, “Influence of third-order nonlinear and phase variations on third harmonic generation,” Optik 119, 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W. G.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q. H.

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Ferroelectrics (1)

D. Eimerl, “Electro-optic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of KDP and its isomorphs,” Ferroelectrics 72, 95–139 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. Li and B. Zhang, “Analysis of broadband third harmonic generation with non-collinear angular dispersion in KDP crystals,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2271–2278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, “Distributed actuators deformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3467–3473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwarz, M. Ramsey, I. Smith, D. Headley, and J. Porter, “Low order adaptive optics on Z-Beamlet using a single actuator deformable mirror,” Opt. Commun. 264, 203–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. L. Li, X. C. Jiang, J. F. Sun, Y. M. Bia, L. J. Wang, and L. R. Liu, “Radial support analysis for large-aperture rotating wedge prism,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1881–1888 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (2)

A. H. Li, Z. Luan, Y. M. Bian, and L. R. Liu, “Integrated analysis of strap mount for a circular mirror,” Optik 122, 1584–1587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhao, Z. F. Cheng, and D. P. Shi, “Influence of third-order nonlinear and phase variations on third harmonic generation,” Optik 119, 161–166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinrich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

O. Lubin and C. Gouedard, “Modeling of the effects of KDP crystals gravity sag on third harmonic generation,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 802–808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, J. M. Auerbach, C. H. Adam, S. E. Bumpas, R. L. Hibbard, C. L. Lee, D. H. Roberts, J. H. Campbell, P. J. Wegner, B. M. Van Wonterghem, and J. A. Caird, “National Ignition Facility frequency converter development,” Proc. SPIE 3047, 197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, C. E. Barker, S. A. Couture, D. Eimerl, J. J. De Yoreo, L. A. Hackel, R. L. Hibbard, L. W. Liou, M. A. Norton, S. A. Perfect, and P. J. Wegner, “Modeling of frequency doubling and tripling with converter refractive index spatial non-uniformities due to gravitational sag,” Proc. SPIE 3492, 472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Zhu, W. G. Zheng, X. F. Wei, F. Jing, D. X. Hu, W. Zhou, B. Feng, J. J. Wang, Z. T. Peng, L. Q. Liu, Y. B. Chen, L. Ding, D. H. Lin, L. F. Guo, and Z. Dang, “Research and construction progress of SG-III laser facility,” Proc. SPIE 8786, 87861G (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Kvamme and M. Jacoby, “A second generation low stress cryogenic mount for space-borne lithium fluoride optics,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920I (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kroes, J. Kragt, R. Navarro, E. Elswijk, and H. Hanenburg, “Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic IR instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182D (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stubbs, C. L. Hom, H. C. Holmes, J. C. Morrett, O. F. Lindstrom, J. W. Irwin, L. A. Ryder, T. T. Hix, J. A. Bonvallet, H. S. Hu, I. V. Chapman, C. Lomax, E. T. Kvamme, G. S. Feller, and M. M. Haynes, “Adhesive bond cryogenic lens cell margin of safety test,” Proc. SPIE 8152, 81520N (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nordt, M. Jacoby, B. Biggs, T. Kvamme, and T. Cahoon, “NIRCam fold mirror and mount designs,” Proc. SPIE 6692, 66920F (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Z. L. Xu, Elasticity (Higher Education, 2006), Chap. 13. (in Chinese).

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics Crystals (Springer, 1999), pp. 48–65.

J. Q. Yao, Nonlinear Optical Frequency Conversion and Laser Tuning Technology (Science, 1995), Chap. 1. (in Chinese).

R. L. Hibbard, M. A. Norton, and P. J. Wegner, “The design of precision mounts for optimizing the conversion efficiency of KDP crystals for the National Ignition Facility,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report, (1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical configuration of the frequency converter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mechanical mounting configuration of the optics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Finite element model of the mounting configuration.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Adjusting effects of the mounting force on the distortion and induced SHG efficiency, (a) the initial deformed shape and (b) the adjustment of the distortion and induced SHG efficiency.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Adjusting effects of the mounting force on the stress and induced SHG efficiency: (a) the stress distribution of 0.6 kN and (b) the adjustment of the stress and induced SHG efficiency.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Contacting status with different mounting force, (a) the contacting status of 0.4 kN and (b) the contacting status of 1.0 kN.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Material Properties of the Mounting Configuration

Equations (17)

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D4ω=q,
{ε}=[B]{U},
{u=(ω/x)×zv=(ω/y)×zw=ω.
[B]=[/x000/z/y0/y0/z0/x00/z/y/x0]T.
{σ}=[D]{ε},
{σxxσyyσzzσyzσxzσxy}=[D11D12D13000D12D11D13000D13D13D33000000D44000000D44000000D66]{εxxεyyεzz2εyz2εxz2εxy},
Δβtan(Δβ)=(d2d1)/l,
Δθ=Δβ×cosθm×cosφ,
ΔK=K22×K1=(ω2/c)×n2(ω2,θ)2×(ω1/c)×n1(ω1,θ),
ΔK=ΔK|θ=θm+d(ΔK)/dθ|θ=θm×(Δθ),
1ne2(ω2,θ)=sin2θne2(ω2)+cos2θno2(ω2)=no2(ω2)×sin2θ×ne2(ω2)×cos2θno2(ω2)×ne2(ω2)ne2(ω2,θ)=no2(ω2)×ne2(ω2)no2(ω2)×sin2θ+ne2(ω2)×cos2θne(ω2,θ)=[no2(ω2)×ne2(ω2)no2(ω2)×sin2θ+ne2(ω2)×cos2θ]1/2,
d(ΔK)/dθ=(dK2/dθ)2×(dK1/dθ)=dK2/dθ=(ω2/c)×((dne(ω2,θ))/dθ)=(1/2)×(ω2/c)×ne2(ω2,θ)×[ne2(ω2)no2(ω2)]×sin2θ.
ΔK=d(ΔK)dθ|θ=θm×(Δθ)={(1/2)×(ω2/c)×ne2(ω2,θ)×[ne2(ω2)no2(ω2)]sin2θ}|θ=θm×(Δθ).
[ΔBxxΔByyΔBzzΔByzΔBxzΔBxy]=[Bxx1/no2Byy1/no2Bzz1/Ne2ByzBxzBxy]=[π11π12π13000π12π11π13000π31π31π33000000π44000000π44000000π66][σxxσyyσzzσyzσxzσxy],
{Δno=(no3/2)×(ΔBxx×sin2φ+ΔByy×cos2φΔBxy×sin2φ)Δne=(Ne3/2)×(ΔBxx×cos2θ×cos2φ+ΔByy×cos2θ×sin2φ+ΔBzz×sin2θ+ΔBxy×cos2θ×sin2φΔBxz×sin2θ×cosφΔByz×sin2θ×sinφ),
{ΔK=(K2+ΔK2)2×(K1+ΔK1)=K22×K1+ΔK22×(ΔK1)=ΔK22×(ΔK1)ΔK1=(ω1/c)×Δno(ω1)ΔK2=(ω2/c)×Δne(ω2),
α=ηη0=sinc2(ΔK×L2)=[sin((ΔK×L)/2)(ΔK×L/2)]2,

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