Abstract

We investigated the second and third harmonic generation (SHG and THG) in ZnO nanorods (NRs) by using a femtosecond laser (optical parametric amplifier with tunable wavelengths) with a long excitation wavelength of 1350 nm and a low repetition rate of 1 kHz. The damage threshold for ZnO NRs in this case was sufficiently large, enabling us to observe the competition between SHG and THG. The transition from red to blue emission and the mixing of red and blue light with different ratios were successfully demonstrated by simply varying excitation intensity, implying the potential applications of ZnO NRs in all-optical display.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  5. B. Jin and D. Wang, “Strong violet emission from zinc oxide dumbbell-like microrods and nanowires,” J. Lumin. 132, 1879–1884 (2012).
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  6. J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
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  7. H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
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  8. S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
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  10. S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
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  12. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
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  14. C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
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  15. C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
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  17. M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).
  18. G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Dai, J. H. Zeng, S. Lan, X. Wan, and S. L. Tie, “Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 21, 10025–10038 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. Narayanan and R. Thareja, “Harmonic generation in ZnO nanocrystalline laser deposited thin films,” Opt. Commun. 260, 170–174 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Y. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. O. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. Kärtner, “Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2127–2129 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, J. H. Zeng, S. Lan, X. Wan, and S. L. Tie, “Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 21, 10025–10038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Jin and D. Wang, “Strong violet emission from zinc oxide dumbbell-like microrods and nanowires,” J. Lumin. 132, 1879–1884 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

O. Mondal and M. Pal, “Strong and unusual violet-blue emission in ring shaped ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 18354–18358 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. Narayanan and R. Thareja, “Harmonic generation in ZnO nanocrystalline laser deposited thin films,” Opt. Commun. 260, 170–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Prasanth, L. K. van Vugt, D. A. M. Vanmaekelbergh, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Resonance enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in a ZnO nanowire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

O. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. Kärtner, “Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2127–2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Redetermination of second-order susceptibility of zinc oxide single crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5436–5438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Y. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akcakir, O.

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

Barry, N.

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belardini, A.

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Belomoin, G.

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Bian, J. C.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Binh, N.

C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, M.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bock, M.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Breusing, M.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S.

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W. P.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. W.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

Chan, W. K.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

Chang, R.

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.-D.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, J. H. Zeng, S. Lan, X. Wan, and S. L. Tie, “Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 21, 10025–10038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q. F.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Djurišic, A. B.

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

Dong, Z.

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, G. T.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Essaidi, Z.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frazer, N.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z. C.

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. C.

R. Prasanth, L. K. van Vugt, D. A. M. Vanmaekelbergh, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Resonance enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in a ZnO nanowire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Haertle, D.

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Hahm, J.-I.

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z. H.

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, H.-Y.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. S.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hwang Woon, L.

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B.

B. Jin and D. Wang, “Strong violet emission from zinc oxide dumbbell-like microrods and nanowires,” J. Lumin. 132, 1879–1884 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kapustianyk, V.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F.

Ketterson, J.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

Kiehne, G.

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koh, K.

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, S.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kulyk, B.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, J. H. Zeng, S. Lan, X. Wan, and S. L. Tie, “Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 21, 10025–10038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Larciprete, M.

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Lee, H.

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. M.

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leung, Y. H.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. Q.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. W.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luc, J.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lysak, T. M.

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGlynn, E.

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mei, Z. W.

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mondal, O.

O. Mondal and M. Pal, “Strong and unusual violet-blue emission in ring shaped ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 18354–18358 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Mücke, O.

Narayanan, V.

V. Narayanan and R. Thareja, “Harmonic generation in ZnO nanocrystalline laser deposited thin films,” Opt. Commun. 260, 170–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, M.

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, U.

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

O’Neill, C.

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, M.

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pal, M.

O. Mondal and M. Pal, “Strong and unusual violet-blue emission in ring shaped ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 18354–18358 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-Y.

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, R.-Q.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P. B.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prasanth, R.

R. Prasanth, L. K. van Vugt, D. A. M. Vanmaekelbergh, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Resonance enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in a ZnO nanowire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S.

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ricca, A.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, B.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarto, F.

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seeber, W.

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sofiani, Z.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tam, K. H.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

Thareja, R.

V. Narayanan and R. Thareja, “Harmonic generation in ZnO nanocrystalline laser deposited thin films,” Opt. Commun. 260, 170–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Therrien, J.

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tian, R.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tie, S.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tie, S. L.

J. Dai, J. H. Zeng, S. Lan, X. Wan, and S. L. Tie, “Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 21, 10025–10038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tritschler, T.

Trofimov, V. A.

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T. Y.

T. Y. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Turko, B.

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Vugt, L. K.

R. Prasanth, L. K. van Vugt, D. A. M. Vanmaekelbergh, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Resonance enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in a ZnO nanowire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D. A. M.

R. Prasanth, L. K. van Vugt, D. A. M. Vanmaekelbergh, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Resonance enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in a ZnO nanowire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

J. Dai, J. H. Zeng, S. Lan, X. Wan, and S. L. Tie, “Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 21, 10025–10038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

B. Jin and D. Wang, “Strong violet emission from zinc oxide dumbbell-like microrods and nanowires,” J. Lumin. 132, 1879–1884 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Redetermination of second-order susceptibility of zinc oxide single crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5436–5438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Wen, X. G.

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G.

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

Wu, L. J.

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. X.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. H.

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. K.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yie Tan, J. Z.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. B.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, J. H.

Zeng, J. L.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. F.

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Y.

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. W.

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. J.

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z. K.

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

H. B. Zeng, G. T. Duan, Y. Li, S. K. Yang, X. X. Xu, and W. P. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 561–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Z. C. Fu, J. Dai, T. Li, H. Y. Liu, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, S. L. Tie, X. Wan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Femtosecond laser ablation of ZnO nanorods for two-photon-pumped random lasing and optical data storage,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 61–66 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, B. Zhang, N. Binh, and Y. Segawa, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 351–355 (2006).

M. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Günter, “Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 431–437 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Wang, G. Kiehne, G. Wong, J. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. Chang, “Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401–403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, Z. Dong, K. Liu, Y. Yan, S. Qian, and H. Deng, “Multiphoton absorption pumped ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, S. Qian, N. Kumar, J.-I. Hahm, and J. Xu, “Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O’Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, L. Hwang Woon, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230–2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nayfeh, O. Akcakir, G. Belomoin, N. Barry, J. Therrien, and E. Gratton, “Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4086–4088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber, “Second-harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170–172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Prasanth, L. K. van Vugt, D. A. M. Vanmaekelbergh, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Resonance enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in a ZnO nanowire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. Lee, K. Lee, S. Lee, K. Koh, J.-Y. Park, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 447, 86–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

Z. K. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, Z. W. Mei, X. G. Wen, and S. H. Yang, “Nonlinear photoluminescence from ZnO nanobelts,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 024201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Dai, Z. Fu, S. Lan, X. Wan, S. Tie, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Modified threshold of two-photon-pumped random lasing of ZnO nanorods by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 063101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Kulyk, Z. Essaidi, J. Luc, Z. Sofiani, G. Boudebs, B. Sahraoui, V. Kapustianyk, and B. Turko, “Second and third order nonlinear optical properties of microrod ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal oxidation of metallic zinc,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, “Multiphoton-absorption induced ultraviolet luminescence of ZnO nanorods using low-energy femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

B. Jin and D. Wang, “Strong violet emission from zinc oxide dumbbell-like microrods and nanowires,” J. Lumin. 132, 1879–1884 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, J. Z. Yie Tan, J. C. Bian, Z. Li, Z.-D. Chen, R.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. He, J. Wang, and F. Yang, “Full-color photoluminescence of ZnO nanorod arrays based on annealing processes,” J. Lumin. 135, 201–205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

O. Mondal and M. Pal, “Strong and unusual violet-blue emission in ring shaped ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 18354–18358 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. Q. Li, C. Y. Zhang, Z. S. Huang, X. F. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. Tie, “Assembling of silicon nanoflowers with significantly enhanced second harmonic generation using silicon nanospheres fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 24625–24631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-field imaging of nonlinear optical mixing in single zinc oxide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2, 279–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

H. Deng, G. Li, Q. Dai, M. Ouyang, S. Lan, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Size dependent competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence observed in gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 24, 075201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. Narayanan and R. Thareja, “Harmonic generation in ZnO nanocrystalline laser deposited thin films,” Opt. Commun. 260, 170–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. Y. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Krishna, M. Sheik-Bahae, and S. Brueck, “Saturation of the second harmonic generation from GaAs-filled metallic hole arrays by nonlinear absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165438 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Liu, H. J. Zhou, A. Ricca, R. Tian, and M. Xiao, “Far-field second-harmonic fingerprint of twinning in single ZnO rods,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 113311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292, 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Small

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2, 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

J. Jang, S. Park, N. Frazer, J. Ketterson, S. Lee, B. Roy, and J. Cho, “Strong P-band emission and third harmonic generation from ZnO nanorods,” Solid State Commun. 152, 1241–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. V. Dorote, ed., Trends in Nanotechnology Research (Nova Science, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic showing the experimental setup used to observe the transition from red to blue emission resulting from the competition between SHG and THG. The excitation intensity was changed by either moving the focusing lens or adjusting the power of the fs laser. The images of the excitation spot recorded by a camera at two different positions of the focusing lens are presented.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nonlinear response spectra obtained at different excitation wavelengths of 1150, 1230, and 1350 nm. The ZnO sample was placed 2 cm away from the focus, and the excitation intensity was fixed at 0.12TW/cm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of the nonlinear response spectrum of ZnO NRs when the focusing lens was moved from the initial position (2 cm away from the focus) toward the focus. The corresponding images of the excitation spot recorded by using a camera are presented as insets. In each case, the estimated excitation intensity and the distance between the sample and the focus (d) are provided.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Evolution of the nonlinear response spectrum of ZnO NRs with increasing excitation intensity. (b) Excitation-intensity-dependent SHG and THG of ZnO NRs. Circles and squares are experimental data, and the solid lines are the fits to these data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Evolution of the nonlinear response spectrum of ZnO NRs with increasing excitation intensity. (b) Excitation-intensity-dependent SHG, THG, and 4PL of ZnO NRs. Squares, circles, and triangles are experimental data, and the solid lines are the fits to these data.

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