Abstract

We present a theoretical model study of a quasi-three-level laser with particular attention given to the Tm:YAG laser. The oscillating conditions of this laser were theoretically analyzed from the point of the pump threshold while taking into account reabsorption loss. The laser oscillation at 2.02 μm with large stimulated emission sections was suppressed by selecting the appropriate coating for the cavity mirrors, then an efficient laser-diode side-pumped continuous-wave Tm:YAG crystal laser operating at 2.07 μm was realized. Experiments with the Tm:YAG laser confirmed the accuracy of the model, and the model was able to accurately predict that the high Stark sub-level within the H36 ground state manifold has a low laser threshold and long laser wavelength, which was achieved by decreasing the transmission of the output coupler.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Q. Yao, F. Chen, C. H. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, and X. M. Duan, “Room temperature single-frequency output from a diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YAP laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1554–1556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. L. Ju, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, Z. G. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Lasing characteristics of a single-frequency Tm:YAG laser,” Laser Phys. 19, 1216–1219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. F. Nieuwenhuis, C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, P. Groß, and K. J. Boller, “Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

1998

1997

T. Taira, W. M. Tulloch, and R. L. Byer, “Modeling of quasi-three-level lasers and operation of cw Yb:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1867–1874 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11  μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1990

1987

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and CW operation of a quasi-three-level 946  nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asai, K.

Betterton, J. G.

Bian, Q.

Bo, Y.

C. L. Wang, S. F. Du, Y. X. Niu, Z. C. Wang, C. Zhang, Q. Bian, C. Guo, J. L. Xu, Y. Bo, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, J. Y. Zhang, W. Q. Lei, and Z. Y. Xu, “Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2  μm,” Opt. Express 21, 7156–7161 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wang, Y. X. Niu, S. F. Du, C. Zhang, Z. C. Wang, F. Q. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Bo, Q. J. Peng, D. F. Cui, J. Y. Zhang, and Z. Y. Xu, “High-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser at 2.07  μm,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7494–7497 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

A. F. Nieuwenhuis, C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, P. Groß, and K. J. Boller, “Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buryy, O. A.

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Taira, W. M. Tulloch, and R. L. Byer, “Modeling of quasi-three-level lasers and operation of cw Yb:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1867–1874 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and CW operation of a quasi-three-level 946  nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cao, D.

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chia, L.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Clarkson, W. A.

Cui, D.

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

Du, S.

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Du, S. F.

Duan, X. M.

Esterowitz, L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and CW operation of a quasi-three-level 946  nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gorton, E. K.

Groß, P.

A. F. Nieuwenhuis, C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, P. Groß, and K. J. Boller, “Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

Guo, Y.

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hara, H.

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Suni and S. W. Henderson, “1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 817–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Itabe, T.

Izhnin, I. I.

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. L.

Y. L. Ju, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, Z. G. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Lasing characteristics of a single-frequency Tm:YAG laser,” Laser Phys. 19, 1216–1219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006), Chap. 8.

Lai, K. S.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Lau, E.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Lee, C. J.

A. F. Nieuwenhuis, C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, P. Groß, and K. J. Boller, “Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lei, W. Q.

Li, F. Q.

Lim, Y. L.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Mackenzie, J. I.

Magee, J. R.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, E. A.

Nieuwenhuis, A. F.

A. F. Nieuwenhuis, C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, P. Groß, and K. J. Boller, “Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y. X.

Peng, Q.

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Q. J.

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11  μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phua, P. B.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Sato, A.

Shepherd, D. P.

Singh, U. N.

So, S.

Solskii, I. M.

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stoneman, R. C.

Sugak, D. Y.

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suni, P. J. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2  μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Suni and S. W. Henderson, “1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 817–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11  μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Tanaka, Y.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11  μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Terry, J. A. C.

Trieu, B. C.

Tulloch, W. M.

Ubizskii, S. B.

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vakiv, M. M.

O. A. Buryy, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, I. I. Izhnin, M. M. Vakiv, and I. M. Solskii, “The comparative analysis and optimization of the free-running Tm3+:YAP and Tm3+:YAG micro lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 433–442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van der Slot, P. J. M.

A. F. Nieuwenhuis, C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, P. Groß, and K. J. Boller, “Mid-infrared ZGP optical parametric oscillator directly pumped by a lamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. L.

Wang, Q.

B. Q. Yao, F. Chen, C. H. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, and X. M. Duan, “Room temperature single-frequency output from a diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YAP laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1554–1556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Ju, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, Z. G. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Lasing characteristics of a single-frequency Tm:YAG laser,” Laser Phys. 19, 1216–1219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Z.

Y. L. Ju, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, Z. G. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Lasing characteristics of a single-frequency Tm:YAG laser,” Laser Phys. 19, 1216–1219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. C.

Wang, Z. G.

Y. L. Ju, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, Z. G. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Lasing characteristics of a single-frequency Tm:YAG laser,” Laser Phys. 19, 1216–1219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. T.

B. Q. Yao, F. Chen, C. H. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, and X. M. Duan, “Room temperature single-frequency output from a diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YAP laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1554–1556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Ju, Q. Wang, C. T. Wu, Z. G. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Lasing characteristics of a single-frequency Tm:YAG laser,” Laser Phys. 19, 1216–1219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. F.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Xie, W. J.

K. S. Lai, W. J. Xie, R. F. Wu, Y. L. Lim, E. Lau, L. Chia, and P. B. Phua, “A 150  W 2-micron diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser,” in Conference on Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2002), Vol. 68, pp. 535–539.

Xu, J.

D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

Yang, J.

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B. Q.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. Cao, Q. Peng, S. Du, J. Xu, Y. Guo, J. Yang, Y. Bo, J. Zhang, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “A 200  W diode-side-pumped CW 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 83–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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D. Cao, S. Du, Q. Peng, J. Xu, Y. Bo, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, and Z. Y. Xu, “171.4  W diode-side-pumped Q-switched 2  μm Tm:YAG laser with a 10  kHz repetition rate,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 044210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence spectrum for Tm:YAG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of the rod Tm:YAG laser with different output couplings. The central wavelength is 2.07 μm for the one with Toc=5% and 2.02 μm for the one with Toc=10%.

Equations (4)

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Pth,i=πhvp(wi2+wp2)4ηiηα(fa,i+fb)σiτi[Li+Ti+2Na,i0σil]i=0,1,
Pth,i=AL+T+2Na,i0σilηiσi(fa,i+fb)i=0,1.
A=πhvp(w2+wp2)4ηατ
Pth,1=AL+T+2Na,10σ1lη1σ1(fa,1+fb)<AL+T+2Na,00σ0lη0σ0(fa,0+fb)=Pth,0.

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