Abstract

An active imaging system in burst mode allows the duty cycle of laser pulses to be close to 50%. In this configuration, a visual artifact resulting from a remote zone in the scene can appear in the image of the desired visualized zone. Therefore, the elements of this remote zone will create confusion in the image with erroneous estimated distances. These misinterpretations can be very disturbing when determining the distance of a target in the scene. In order to demonstrate the occurrence of visual artifacts with an active imaging system in burst mode, the different translated signals in the time domain as well as the atmospheric attenuation and the attenuation due to the inverse square distance were included in the modeling of this mode. A graphic method, which does not take into account the different attenuations, was also proposed to give an idea of the visual artifact phenomenon. The validity of the modeling was demonstrated by comparing the results of the outdoor tests carried out with an active imaging system in burst mode. Consequently, the simulation programs can use this modeling to evaluate the visual artifact in a scene.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009

E. Repasi, P. Lutzmann, O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, B. Göhler, and G. Anstett, “Advanced short-wavelength infrared range-gated imaging for ground applications in monostatic and bistatic configurations,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5956–5969 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Guo, and Y.-C. Li, “Performance analysis of range-gated active imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822E (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Nayak, E. Trucco, A. Ahmad, and A. M. Wallace, “Appearance-based simulation of burst-illumination laser sequences,” IET Image Process. 2, 165–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2004

1999

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, “Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 432–448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. Bonnier and V. Larochelle, “A range-gated active imaging system for search and rescue, and surveillance operations,” Proc. SPIE 2744, 134–145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, and P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging-system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1969

1966

Ahmad, A.

A. Nayak, E. Trucco, A. Ahmad, and A. M. Wallace, “Appearance-based simulation of burst-illumination laser sequences,” IET Image Process. 2, 165–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anstett, G.

Barillot, P.

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bolander, G.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, “Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 432–448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnier, D.

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonnier and V. Larochelle, “A range-gated active imaging system for search and rescue, and surveillance operations,” Proc. SPIE 2744, 134–145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, and P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging-system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Busck, J.

Carlsson, C.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, “Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 432–448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chatigny, S.

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

David, O.

Elmqvist, M.

Espinola, R. L.

Forand, J. L.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, and P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging-system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, and P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging-system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frédéric, Y.-M.

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galarneau, P.

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, L. F.

Göhler, B.

Guo, H.-C.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Guo, and Y.-C. Li, “Performance analysis of range-gated active imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C. E.

Heiselberg, H.

Hélias, F.

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hespel, L.

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holst, G. C.

G. C. Holst, Electro-Optical Imaging System Performance (SPIE, 1995).

Jacobs, E. L.

Kopeika, N. S.

Labranche, B.

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, V.

D. Bonnier and V. Larochelle, “A range-gated active imaging system for search and rescue, and surveillance operations,” Proc. SPIE 2744, 134–145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, “Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 432–448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lévesque, M.

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-C.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Guo, and Y.-C. Li, “Performance analysis of range-gated active imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, Y.

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lutzmann, P.

Nayak, A.

A. Nayak, E. Trucco, A. Ahmad, and A. M. Wallace, “Appearance-based simulation of burst-illumination laser sequences,” IET Image Process. 2, 165–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, H.

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, “Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 432–448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pace, P. W.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, and P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging-system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Repasi, E.

Rivière, N.

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steingold, H.

Steinvall, O.

Strauch, R. E.

Sun, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Guo, and Y.-C. Li, “Performance analysis of range-gated active imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tofsted, D. H.

Trucco, E.

A. Nayak, E. Trucco, A. Ahmad, and A. M. Wallace, “Appearance-based simulation of burst-illumination laser sequences,” IET Image Process. 2, 165–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Velluet, M.-T.

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vollmerhausen, R.

Wallace, A. M.

A. Nayak, E. Trucco, A. Ahmad, and A. M. Wallace, “Appearance-based simulation of burst-illumination laser sequences,” IET Image Process. 2, 165–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weizer, B.

Appl. Opt.

IET Image Process.

A. Nayak, E. Trucco, A. Ahmad, and A. M. Wallace, “Appearance-based simulation of burst-illumination laser sequences,” IET Image Process. 2, 165–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Eng.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, and P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging-system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

D. Bonnier and V. Larochelle, “A range-gated active imaging system for search and rescue, and surveillance operations,” Proc. SPIE 2744, 134–145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Rivière, L. Hespel, M.-T. Velluet, Y.-M. Frédéric, P. Barillot, and F. Hélias, “Modelling of an active burst illumination imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822S (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Guo, and Y.-C. Li, “Performance analysis of range-gated active imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7382, 73822E (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonnier, S. Chatigny, Y. Lutz, B. Labranche, M. Lévesque, and P. Galarneau, “Modelling an active TV system for surveillance operation,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 217–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Steinvall, H. Olsson, G. Bolander, C. Carlsson, and D. Letalick, “Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 432–448 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. C. Holst, Electro-Optical Imaging System Performance (SPIE, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illuminance of the visualized zone without taking into account the different attenuations as a function of time and distance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Graphic method visualizing the visual artifact phenomenon.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illuminance of the visualized zone, taking into account the different attenuations as a function of the distance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal measurement of the laser beam.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image recorded with an active imaging system in burst mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photo in broad daylight of the scene chosen for the tests.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Illuminance and position of the visual artifact modeled with the same parameters as those used for the outdoor tests.

Equations (18)

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g(t)=l(t)*c(t)FTG(f)=L(f)·C(f).
L(f)=A·Δt·sinc(π·Δt·f),
C(f)=n=0(m1)[Tcamera·sinc(π·Tcamera·f)×e2πjf((Δt+Tcamera2)·(2n+1)+rt·(n+1))].
Tcamera=Δt·kmulti.
C(f)=n=0(m1)[kmulti·Δt·sinc(π·kmulti·Δt·f)×e2πjf(Δt·(1+kmulti2)·(2n+1)+rt·(n+1))].
L(f)·C(f)=m=1Npulsesn=0(m1)[A·kmulti·Δt2·sinc(π·Δt·f)×sinc(π·kmulti·Δt·f)·e2πjf(Δt·(1+kmulti2)·(2n+1)+rt·(n+1))].
g(t)=FT1[m=1Npulsesn=0(m1)[A·kmulti·Δt2·sinc(π·Δt·f)×sinc(π·kmulti·Δt·f)·e2πjf(Δt(1+kmulti2)(2n+1)+rt(n+1))]].
FT[l(d)]=2c·L(ν)
FT[c(d)]=2c·C(ν),
d=c·t2
ν=2·fc.
G(ν)=4c2·L(ν)·C(ν).
Δd=c·Δt
rd=c·rt2,
g(d)=FT1[4c2·m=1Npulsesn=0(m1)[A·kmulti·Δd24×sinc(π·Δd·ν2)·sinc(π·kmulti·Δd·ν2)×e2πjν(Δd2·(1+kmulti2)·(2n+1)+rd·(n+1))]].
g(t)=FT1[m=1Npulsesn=0(m1)[A·Δt2·sinc2(π·Δt·f)×e2πjf(Δt·(2n+1)+rt·(n+1))]]
g(d)=FT1[4c2·m=1Npulsesn=0(m1)[A·Δd24×sinc2(π·Δd·ν2)·e2πjν(Δd2·(2n+1)+rd·(n+1))]].
gatt(d)=g(d)·e2αdd2,

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