Abstract

Channeled spectropolarimetry or spectral polarization modulation is an accurate technique for measuring the continuum polarization in one shot with no moving parts. We show how a dual-beam implementation also enables spectral line polarimetry at the intrinsic resolution, as in a classic beam-splitting polarimeter. Recording redundant polarization information in the two spectrally modulated beams of a polarizing beam-splitter even provides the possibility to perform a postfacto differential transmission correction that improves the accuracy of the spectral line polarimetry. We perform an error analysis to compare the accuracy of spectral line polarimetry to continuum polarimetry, degraded by a residual dark signal and differential transmission, as well as to quantify the impact of the transmission correction. We demonstrate the new techniques with a blue sky polarization measurement around the oxygen A absorption band using the groundSPEX instrument, yielding a polarization in the deepest part of the band of 0.160±0.010, significantly different from the polarization in the continuum of 0.2284±0.0004. The presented methods are applicable to any dual-beam channeled polarimeter, including implementations for snapshot imaging polarimetry.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2014 (1)

R. Beelen, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, and M. Stafoggia, “Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project,” The Lancet 383, 785–795 (2014).

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

M. W. Kudenov, M. J. Escuti, E. L. Dereniak, and K. Oka, “White-light channeled imaging polarimeter using broadband polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2283–2293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Craven and M. W. Kudenov, “False signature reduction in channeled spectropolarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 49, 053602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. de Graaf, P. Stammes, O. Torres, and R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “Absorbing aerosol index: sensitivity analysis, application to GOME and comparison with TOMS,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D01201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” Proc. SPIE 5575, 16–30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (3)

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Oka and T. Kato, “Spectroscopic polarimetry with a channeled spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1475–1477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Kawata, “Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres,” Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

K. H. Nordsieck, “A simple polarimetric system for the Lick Observatory image-tube scanner,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 86, 324–329 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

B. Lyot, “Optical apparatus with wide field using interference of polarized light,” C.R. Acad. Sci. 197, 1593 (1933).

Aben, I.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Apituley, A.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A. Apituley, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and W. A. A. Monna, eds. (2009).

Beelen, R.

R. Beelen, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, and M. Stafoggia, “Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project,” The Lancet 383, 785–795 (2014).

Bennartz, R.

Bermudo, F.

F. Bermudo, B. Fougnie, and T. Bret Dibat, “POLDER 2 in-flight results and PARASOL perspectives,” in 5th International Conference on Space Optics, Vol. 554 of ESA Special Publications (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 139–145.

Boesche, E.

Bret Dibat, T.

F. Bermudo, B. Fougnie, and T. Bret Dibat, “POLDER 2 in-flight results and PARASOL perspectives,” in 5th International Conference on Space Optics, Vol. 554 of ESA Special Publications (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 139–145.

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

Chu, D. A.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craven, J.

J. Craven and M. W. Kudenov, “False signature reduction in channeled spectropolarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 49, 053602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dahe, Q.

T. F. Stocker, Q. Dahe, and G.-K. Plattner, “Climate change 2013: the physical science basis,” in Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers (IPCC, 2013).

de Boer, J.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

de Graaf, M.

M. de Graaf, P. Stammes, O. Torres, and R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “Absorbing aerosol index: sensitivity analysis, application to GOME and comparison with TOMS,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D01201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A. Apituley, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and W. A. A. Monna, eds. (2009).

De Haan, J. F.

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Stammes, F. Kuik, and J. F. de Haan, “Atmospheric polarization in the oxygen A and B bands,” in Proceedings of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium [CD-ROM], 1994.

de Vries, J.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

Di Noia, A.

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

Diamantopoulou, R.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dobber, M. R.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

Fischer, J.

Fougnie, B.

F. Bermudo, B. Fougnie, and T. Bret Dibat, “POLDER 2 in-flight results and PARASOL perspectives,” in 5th International Conference on Space Optics, Vol. 554 of ESA Special Publications (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 139–145.

Germer, T. A.

Goldstein, D. H.

M. W. Kudenov and D. H. Goldstein, “Channeled polarimetry for snapshot measurements,” in Polarized Light, D. H. Goldstein, ed., 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2011), pp. 401–433.

Goldstein, D. L.

Hagen, N.

Hannemann, S.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasekamp, O. P.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land surfaces: capabilities of multiple-viewing-angle intensity and polarization measurements,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3332–3344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

Helderman, F.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henzing, J. S.

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

Holben, B. N.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C. A.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” Proc. SPIE 5575, 16–30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” Proc. SPIE 5575, 16–30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichoku, C.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

Karalidi, T.

Kato, T.

Kaufman, Y. J.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, “Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres,” Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Keller, C. U.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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F. Snik, T. Karalidi, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral modulation for full linear polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1337–1346 (2009).
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F. Snik and C. U. Keller, “Astronomical polarimetry: polarized views of stars and planets,” in Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, T. D. Oswalt and H. E. Bond, eds., Vol. 2, Astronomical Techniques, Software and Data (Springer, 2013), p. 175.

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

J. H. H. Rietjens, G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Performance of spectrally modulated polarimetry 2. Data reduction and absolute polarization calibration” (in preparation).

Kleidman, R. G.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
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Koelemeijer, R. B. A.

M. de Graaf, P. Stammes, O. Torres, and R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “Absorbing aerosol index: sensitivity analysis, application to GOME and comparison with TOMS,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D01201 (2005).
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Kuik, F.

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G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
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L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
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P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
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L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
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L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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Omar, A. H.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” Proc. SPIE 5575, 16–30 (2004).
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T. F. Stocker, Q. Dahe, and G.-K. Plattner, “Climate change 2013: the physical science basis,” in Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers (IPCC, 2013).

Potma, C.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A. Apituley, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and W. A. A. Monna, eds. (2009).

Powell, K. A.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” Proc. SPIE 5575, 16–30 (2004).
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Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

R. Beelen, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, and M. Stafoggia, “Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project,” The Lancet 383, 785–795 (2014).

Remer, L. A.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
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Rietjens, J. H. H.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

J. H. H. Rietjens, G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Performance of spectrally modulated polarimetry 2. Data reduction and absolute polarization calibration” (in preparation).

Ruhtz, T.

Saari, H.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
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K. Oka and N. Saito, “Snapshot complete imaging polarimeter using Savart plates,” Proc. SPIE 6295, 629508 (2006).
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Shettle, E. P.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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Smit, J. M.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

J. H. H. Rietjens, G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Performance of spectrally modulated polarimetry 2. Data reduction and absolute polarization calibration” (in preparation).

Snik, F.

W. Sparks, T. A. Germer, J. W. MacKenty, and F. Snik, “Compact and robust method for full Stokes spectropolarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5495–5511 (2012).
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G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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F. Snik, T. Karalidi, and C. U. Keller, “Spectral modulation for full linear polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1337–1346 (2009).
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F. Snik and C. U. Keller, “Astronomical polarimetry: polarized views of stars and planets,” in Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, T. D. Oswalt and H. E. Bond, eds., Vol. 2, Astronomical Techniques, Software and Data (Springer, 2013), p. 175.

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

J. H. H. Rietjens, G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Performance of spectrally modulated polarimetry 2. Data reduction and absolute polarization calibration” (in preparation).

Sparks, W.

Stafoggia, M.

R. Beelen, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, and M. Stafoggia, “Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project,” The Lancet 383, 785–795 (2014).

Stam, D. M.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843–16858 (1999).
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Stammes, P.

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, R. Preusker, R. Bennartz, W. Knap, and J. Fischer, “Polarization of skylight in the O2A band: effects of aerosol properties,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3467–3480 (2008).
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P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
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M. de Graaf, P. Stammes, O. Torres, and R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “Absorbing aerosol index: sensitivity analysis, application to GOME and comparison with TOMS,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D01201 (2005).
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D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843–16858 (1999).
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I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
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P. Stammes, F. Kuik, and J. F. de Haan, “Atmospheric polarization in the oxygen A and B bands,” in Proceedings of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium [CD-ROM], 1994.

Stocker, T. F.

T. F. Stocker, Q. Dahe, and G.-K. Plattner, “Climate change 2013: the physical science basis,” in Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers (IPCC, 2013).

Tanré, D.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ter Horst, R.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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Torres, O.

M. de Graaf, P. Stammes, O. Torres, and R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “Absorbing aerosol index: sensitivity analysis, application to GOME and comparison with TOMS,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D01201 (2005).
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Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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Tyo, J. S.

van den Oord, G. H. J.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
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van Harten, G.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

J. H. H. Rietjens, G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. M. Smit, and C. U. Keller, “Performance of spectrally modulated polarimetry 2. Data reduction and absolute polarization calibration” (in preparation).

Vaughan, M. A.

M. A. Vaughan, S. A. Young, D. M. Winker, K. A. Powell, A. H. Omar, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, and C. A. Hostetler, “Fully automated analysis of space-based lidar data: an overview of the CALIPSO retrieval algorithms and data products,” Proc. SPIE 5575, 16–30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verlaan, A. L.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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Vermote, E.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947–973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Visser, H.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
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Vliegenthart, W. A.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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Volten, H.

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A. Apituley, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and W. A. A. Monna, eds. (2009).

Vonk, J.

G. van Harten, J. de Boer, J. H. H. Rietjens, F. Snik, A. Di Noia, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Vonk, H. Volten, J. M. Smit, J. S. Henzing, and C. U. Keller, “Atmospheric aerosol characterization with a ground-based SPEX spectropolarimetric instrument,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.7 (to be published).

Voors, R.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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Wielinga, K.

G. van Harten, F. Snik, J. H. H. Rietjens, J. M. Smit, J. de Boer, R. Diamantopoulou, O. P. Hasekamp, D. M. Stam, C. U. Keller, E. C. Laan, A. L. Verlaan, W. A. Vliegenthart, R. Ter Horst, R. Navarro, K. Wielinga, S. Hannemann, S. G. Moon, and R. Voors, “Prototyping for the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration (SPEX): calibration and sky measurements,” Proc. SPIE 8160, 81600Z (2011).
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A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A. Apituley, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and W. A. A. Monna, eds. (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measurement of clear sky polarization with the groundSPEX instrument. Continuum polarization is encoded as the amplitude and phase of the sinusoidal modulation. The sum of the two beams out of the polarizing beam-splitting analyzer is the unmodulated intensity spectrum at the intrinsic resolution. The O 2 A absorption band at 760 nm, indicated with the gray band, is clearly visible. The measurement was performed at 4:19 p.m. UTC on July 8, 2013, at the CESAR Observatory, The Netherlands (52.0° N, 4.9° E). The instrument is pointed at zenith, and the solar zenith angle is 59.2°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement of clear sky polarization with the groundSPEX instrument. Top: same as Fig. 1, zoomed in around O 2 A band. Bottom: the amplitude of the normalized modulation describes the continuum polarization. The phase is the angle of linear polarization, which is known to be constant for scattering polarization. The polarization in the deepest part of the O 2 A band is seen to be smaller by 0.07 .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absolute error in the polarization measurement due to uncorrected dark signal, as a function of the degree of polarization. Spectral modulation of continuum polarization is at least an order of magnitude less susceptible to residual dark current than the classic spatial modulation, as applied in spectral lines.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absolute error in the polarization measurement due to differential transmission in the two beams out of the polarizing beam-splitter, as a function of the degree of polarization. The transmission correction algorithm of Section 2.C decreases the polarization error by two orders of magnitude for spectral line polarimetry, and even more for continuum polarimetry.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absolute error in the polarization due to the combination of residual dark current and the corresponding imperfectly corrected differential transmission, as a function of the degree of polarization. The parameter values are adopted from the O 2 A absorption band measurement in Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured clear sky polarization in the O 2 A absorption band, and in the continuum around it, with a dual-beam channeled spectropolarimeter (groundSPEX). The raw spectrally modulated measurements are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Polarization in the deepest parts of the band is significantly different from the continuum. The color of the line polarization is scaled with the polarimetric efficiency for better visibility.

Equations (8)

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S ± ( λ ) = 1 2 I 0 ( λ ) t ± ( λ ) [ 1 ± P L ( λ ) cos ( ψ ( λ ) ) ] , ψ ( λ ) 2 π δ ( λ ) λ + 2 ϕ L ( λ ) .
S + ( λ ) S ( λ ) S + ( λ ) + S ( λ ) = P L ( λ ) cos ψ ( λ ) ,
α ( λ ) = 1 2 π 0 2 π S + ( λ ) S ( λ ) S + ( λ ) + S ( λ ) d ψ = ( 1 + t ) 4 t / ( 1 + t ) 2 P L 2 ( 1 t ) 2 ( 1 t ) .
α ( λ ) α ( λ ) | P L = 0 = 1 t ( λ ) 1 + t ( λ ) .
α ( λ ) | P L = 1 = 1 t ( λ ) 1 + t ( λ ) ,
S ± ( λ ) = S ± ( λ ) + Δ d + σ d ± ( λ ) .
P L , line = S + S S + + S | ψ = 0
P L , cont = 1 2 ( S + S S + + S | ψ = 0 S + S S + + S | ψ = π ) .

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