Abstract

Log-ratio detection is a convenient technique for making temperature and concentration measurements using sensors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. In many practical sensing applications, it is difficult to avoid stray light falling on the signal photodiode of the sensor. This stray light acts as noncommon-mode interference and introduces a systematic error in absorption measurements, which is not removed by baseline subtraction. This paper analyzes the factors that determine this systematic error and also presents a calibration method that can correct for it. This correction method is verified using a simple experiment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2011 (1)

W. M. Nakaema, Z. Q. Hao, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, and K. Stelmaszczyk, “PCF-based cavity enhanced spectroscopic sensors for simultaneous multicomponent trace gas analysis,” Sensors 11, 1620–1640 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

L. Cerutti, A. Garnache, A. Ouvrard, M. Garcia, and F. Genty, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser sources for gas detection,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 631–635 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1021–1025 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Griffiths and A. F. P. Houwing, “Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6653–6659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Villarreal and P. L. Varghese, “Frequency-resolved absorption tomography with tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6786–6795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. A. Martin, “Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201–210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Quine and J. R. Drummond, “GENSPECT: a line-by-line code with selectable interpolation error tolerance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74, 147–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5310–5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

A. T. Zander, T. C. O’Haver, and P. N. Keliher, “Continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry with high resolution and wavelength modulation,” Anal. Chem. 48, 1166–1175 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Amann, M. C.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andreas, E.

Auwera, J. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barhost, T.

S. J. Chen, M. E. Paige, J. A. Silver, S. Williams, and T. Barhost, “Laser-based mass flow rate sensor onboard HIFiRE Flight 1,” in Proceedings of the 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, AIAA 2009–5065 (AIAA, 2009), pp. 1–7.

Barychev, V.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5310–5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carleton, K. L.

Cerutti, L.

L. Cerutti, A. Garnache, A. Ouvrard, M. Garcia, and F. Genty, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser sources for gas detection,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 631–635 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

S. J. Chen, M. E. Paige, J. A. Silver, S. Williams, and T. Barhost, “Laser-based mass flow rate sensor onboard HIFiRE Flight 1,” in Proceedings of the 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, AIAA 2009–5065 (AIAA, 2009), pp. 1–7.

Cho, A. Y.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. Cerutti, A. Garnache, A. Ouvrard, M. Garcia, and F. Genty, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser sources for gas detection,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 631–635 (2005).
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Gmachl, C.

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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Hao, Z. Q.

W. M. Nakaema, Z. Q. Hao, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, and K. Stelmaszczyk, “PCF-based cavity enhanced spectroscopic sensors for simultaneous multicomponent trace gas analysis,” Sensors 11, 1620–1640 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. C. D.

Houwing, A. F. P.

Hutchinson, A. L.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. T. Zander, T. C. O’Haver, and P. N. Keliher, “Continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry with high resolution and wavelength modulation,” Anal. Chem. 48, 1166–1175 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Kristensson, E.

Lackner, M.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Meffert, C.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Nakaema, W. M.

W. M. Nakaema, Z. Q. Hao, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, and K. Stelmaszczyk, “PCF-based cavity enhanced spectroscopic sensors for simultaneous multicomponent trace gas analysis,” Sensors 11, 1620–1640 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Haver, T. C.

A. T. Zander, T. C. O’Haver, and P. N. Keliher, “Continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry with high resolution and wavelength modulation,” Anal. Chem. 48, 1166–1175 (1976).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Otis, C. E.

Ouvrard, A.

L. Cerutti, A. Garnache, A. Ouvrard, M. Garcia, and F. Genty, “Vertical cavity surface emitting laser sources for gas detection,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 631–635 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paige, M. E.

S. J. Chen, M. E. Paige, J. A. Silver, S. Williams, and T. Barhost, “Laser-based mass flow rate sensor onboard HIFiRE Flight 1,” in Proceedings of the 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, AIAA 2009–5065 (AIAA, 2009), pp. 1–7.

Palombo, D. A.

Per-Erik, B.

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L. C.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quine, B.

B. Quine and J. R. Drummond, “GENSPECT: a line-by-line code with selectable interpolation error tolerance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74, 147–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rawlins, W. T.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Rohwetter, P.

W. M. Nakaema, Z. Q. Hao, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, and K. Stelmaszczyk, “PCF-based cavity enhanced spectroscopic sensors for simultaneous multicomponent trace gas analysis,” Sensors 11, 1620–1640 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosskopf, J.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5310–5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

Schultz, I. A.

Schulz, C.

Shau, R.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, and J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chen, M. E. Paige, J. A. Silver, S. Williams, and T. Barhost, “Laser-based mass flow rate sensor onboard HIFiRE Flight 1,” in Proceedings of the 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, AIAA 2009–5065 (AIAA, 2009), pp. 1–7.

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

Sjholm, M.

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1021–1025 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1021–1025 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stanton, A. C.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

W. M. Nakaema, Z. Q. Hao, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, and K. Stelmaszczyk, “PCF-based cavity enhanced spectroscopic sensors for simultaneous multicomponent trace gas analysis,” Sensors 11, 1620–1640 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, K.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5310–5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1021–1025 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sven, H.

Tang, C. L.

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Totschnig, G.

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, P. L.

Villarreal, R.

Wagner, S.

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “High-temperature laser absorption diagnostics for CH2O and CH3CHO and their application to shock tube kinetic studies,” Combust. Flame 160, 1930–1938 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S.

S. J. Chen, M. E. Paige, J. A. Silver, S. Williams, and T. Barhost, “Laser-based mass flow rate sensor onboard HIFiRE Flight 1,” in Proceedings of the 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, AIAA 2009–5065 (AIAA, 2009), pp. 1–7.

Winter, F.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68  μm with up to 5  MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzel, O.

Wöste, L.

W. M. Nakaema, Z. Q. Hao, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, and K. Stelmaszczyk, “PCF-based cavity enhanced spectroscopic sensors for simultaneous multicomponent trace gas analysis,” Sensors 11, 1620–1640 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zander, A. T.

A. T. Zander, T. C. O’Haver, and P. N. Keliher, “Continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry with high resolution and wavelength modulation,” Anal. Chem. 48, 1166–1175 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1021–1025 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. T. Zander, T. C. O’Haver, and P. N. Keliher, “Continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry with high resolution and wavelength modulation,” Anal. Chem. 48, 1166–1175 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

D. S. Bomse, A. C. Stanton, and J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Philippe and R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. D. Hobbs, “Ultrasensitive laser measurements without tears,” Appl. Opt. 36, 903–920 (1997).
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M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, and D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: applications for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Griffiths and A. F. P. Houwing, “Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6653–6659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Villarreal and P. L. Varghese, “Frequency-resolved absorption tomography with tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6786–6795 (2005).
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R. K. Hanson and P. K. Falcone, “Temperature measurement technique for high-temperature gases using a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2477–2480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jaeger, “Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 297–305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Totschnig, M. Lackner, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, M. C. Amann, and F. Winter, “High-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption spectroscopy of ammonia (NH3) near 1.54  m,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1021–1025 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

P. A. Martin, “Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201–210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

S. Wang, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “High-temperature laser absorption diagnostics for CH2O and CH3CHO and their application to shock tube kinetic studies,” Combust. Flame 160, 1930–1938 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

B. Quine and J. R. Drummond, “GENSPECT: a line-by-line code with selectable interpolation error tolerance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74, 147–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, “Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5310–5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the sensor configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical absorption spectrum showing oxygen lines scanned in the experiment at 293 K and 101325 Pa.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Log-ratio output signal for four different fractional stray light intensities N.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of measured temperature with increasing fractional stray light intensity N. Actual temperature was 292.5 K. The error bars indicate the standard deviation over 100 measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Simulated absorption spectrum with distorted (curved) baseline. The shaded portion shows the area covered under the distortion. (b) Theoretical spectrum expected at the experimental conditions (black), baseline-subtracted spectrum (green), and the difference between them, which is designated as the systematic error (red).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of area covered under baseline distortion with increasing stray light intensity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Temperature values before (blue) and after (red) baseline correction for stray light.

Equations (13)

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I¯=I¯exp(A),
A=ln(I¯/I¯).
A(ν)=Sg(ν)Nz,
S(T)=S(T0)Q(T0)Q(T)exp[hcEk(1T1T0)],
V=Gln(Ir/I)=GA,
V=Gln[Ir+irrIrexp(A)+is],
B=Gln[Ir+irrIr+is]
V=VB=Gln[rIr+isrIrexp(A)+is].
E=VV=Glog[1+isrIr1+isrIrexp(A)].
E=VV=log[1+N1+Nexp(A)],
N=isIr.
B=Gln[IrIr+is].
r=1ir=0G=constantIr=not changing from scan to scan,

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