Abstract

A video-rate optical phase conjugator using an image sensor and a liquid crystal panel that operated at 30 Hz was developed and its temporal characteristic was studied. Strong air turbulence of atmospheric structure constant, Cn=6.3×107[m1/3], was successfully compensated, reducing beam dancing by a factor of 2. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating real-time wavefront correction by digital phase conjugation using commercial devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

1971 (1)

1966 (1)

Akahori, T.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Aoyama, S.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Arnett, K.

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brignon, A.

A. Brignon and J.-P. Huignard, Phase Conjugate Laser Optics (Wiley, 2004).

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed., 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 557–560.

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, M.

Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

Egami, N.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Fisher, R. A.

R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, 1983).

Handschy, M.

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Huignard, J.-P.

A. Brignon and J.-P. Huignard, Phase Conjugate Laser Optics (Wiley, 2004).

Iida, T.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Isobe, K.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

Kawahito, S.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Kawakami, K.

Kitamura, K.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Kosugi, T.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mao, C.

Max, C. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mignant, D. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moddel, G.

Ohtake, H.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Okamura, H.

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Sawamoto, T.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Schreiber, H.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed., 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 557–560.

Shimamoto, H.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watabe, T.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yang, C.

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. L. Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. Watabe, K. Kitamura, T. Sawamoto, T. Kosugi, T. Akahori, T. Iida, K. Isobe, T. Watanabe, H. Shimamoto, H. Ohtake, S. Aoyama, S. Kawahito, and N. Egami, “A 33  Mpixel 120  fps CMOS image sensor using 12b column-parallel pipelined cyclic ADCs,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 388–389.

A. Brignon and J.-P. Huignard, Phase Conjugate Laser Optics (Wiley, 2004).

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed., 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 557–560.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. L1, lens (f=45mm); L2, lens (f=30mm); PBS, polarized beam splitter; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of autoretracing property test. The lens is set on a rotational stage and used as an aberrator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Result of autoretracing property test. Although non-PCL goes outside the target area as the lens tilts, PCL can stay inside the target area.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pictures of output light at the target plane [(a) and (b)] and their intensity profiles [(c) and (d)]. (a) and (c) are the case when a correct orientation interference pattern was used and 180° rotated pattern was used for (b) and (d). Correction of wavefront distortions caused by a static aberrator is shown only for (a) and (c).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Compensation of dynamic abberations. Schematic diagram (a), screenshots of the movie [(b) and (c)], and spot positions [(d) and (e)] are shown. Those results show that PCL stays at the same position by cancelling the effect of dynamic aberrator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Compensation of air turbulence created by heated soldering iron. Schematic diagram (a), and the results [(b) and (c)]. Each image is an accumulation of binarized movie frames. Travel range of PCL (c) is smaller than that of non-PCL case when 180° reversed interference pattern was used (b).

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