Abstract

We observed the stratospheric aerosol layer at 34° north latitude with a photon-counting 1574 nm lidar on three occasions in 2011. During all of the observations, we also operated a nearby 523.5 nm micropulse lidar and acquired National Weather Service upper air data. We analyzed the lidar data to find scattering ratio profiles and the integrated aerosol backscatter at both wavelengths and then calculated the color ratio and wavelength exponent for lidar backscattering from the stratospheric aerosols. The visible-light integrated backscatter values of the layer were in the range 2.8–3.5×10−4  sr−1 and the infrared integrated backscatter values ranged from 2.4 to 3.7×10−5  sr−1. The wavelength exponent was determined to be 1.9±0.2.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013

T. H. Trickl, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, and H. Vogelmann, “33 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5205–5225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

2008

T. Deshler, “A review of global stratospheric aerosol: measurements, importance, life cycle, and local stratospheric aerosol,” Atmos. Res. 90, 223–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Jäger, “Long-term record of lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer at Garmisch-Partenkirchen,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895–2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1923–1926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1991

1989

1964

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20  km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961

C. E. Junge and J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosol studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2163–2182 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Barnes, J. E.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895–2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1923–1926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Bowling, A. L.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brion, J.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, A.

Chakir, A.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, J.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cordoba-Jabonero, C.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Daumont, D.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, “A review of global stratospheric aerosol: measurements, importance, life cycle, and local stratospheric aerosol,” Atmos. Res. 90, 223–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20  km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Giehl, H.

T. H. Trickl, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, and H. Vogelmann, “33 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5205–5225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gimmestad, G. G.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. W. Roberts, and G. G. Gimmestad, “Initial measurements using a 1.54 micron eyesafe Raman-shifted lidar,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4978–4981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Godin-Beekmann, S.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Grams, G.

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20  km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Hoff, R. M.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Hofmann, D.

Hofmann, D. J.

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895–2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1923–1926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Jäger, H.

T. H. Trickl, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, and H. Vogelmann, “33 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5205–5225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, “Long-term record of lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer at Garmisch-Partenkirchen,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D08106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger and D. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ aerosol measurements from 1980 to 1987,” Appl. Opt. 30, 127–138 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge and J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosol studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2163–2182 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Lange, D.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Madonna, F.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Malicet, J.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manson, J. E.

C. E. Junge and J. E. Manson, “Stratospheric aerosol studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2163–2182 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, S. D.

Mona, L.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Navas-Guzmán, F.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Pappalardo, G.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Parisse, C.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830  nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, E. M.

Payen, G.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Roberts, D. W.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. W. Roberts, and G. G. Gimmestad, “Initial measurements using a 1.54 micron eyesafe Raman-shifted lidar,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4978–4981 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sawamura, P.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Sicard, M.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Spuler, S. M.

Stewart, J. M.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T. H.

T. H. Trickl, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, and H. Vogelmann, “33 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5205–5225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. N.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Vernier, J. P.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Vogelmann, H.

T. H. Trickl, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, and H. Vogelmann, “33 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5205–5225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Welton, E. J.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

West, L. L.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J. W.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, H. D.

H. D. Young, Statistical Treatment of Experimental Data (McGraw-Hill, 1962).

Am. J. Phys.

L. L. West, G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and A. L. Bowling, “Atmospheric laser radar as an undergraduate educational experience,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 665–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

T. H. Trickl, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, and H. Vogelmann, “33 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5205–5225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res.

T. Deshler, “A review of global stratospheric aerosol: measurements, importance, life cycle, and local stratospheric aerosol,” Atmos. Res. 90, 223–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Res. Lett.

P. Sawamura, J. P. Vernier, J. E. Barnes, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, L. Alados-Arboledas, F. Navas-Guzmán, G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, F. Madonna, D. Lange, M. Sicard, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Payen, Z. Wang, S. Hu, S. N. Tripathi, C. Cordoba-Jabonero, and R. M. Hoff, “Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034013 (2012).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1923–1926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other

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Archived ozone maps were obtained from the Meteorological Service of Canada World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Center at the website http://www.woudc.org/data/OzoneMaps_e.html .

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