Abstract

Glass–ceramic nanocomposites comprising GdBr3/CeBr3 loaded sodium-aluminosilicate glasses in which scintillating crystallites are precipitated in situ from a host glass matrix were studied. This materials system shows promise as an alternative to single-crystal scintillators, with potential to be fabricated into a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions. Batch compositions containing 15–18 mol. % GdBr3 and 3–4 mol. % CeBr3 were prepared and analyzed for photoluminescent light yield. Light yield peaked with rare-earth content of 15 mol. % GdBr3 and 4 mol. % CeBr3. Preliminary ceramization studies on this composition found that the precipitated phase more closely matched a Gd2O3-CeO2 mixture rather than the GdBr3(Ce) that was targeted.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

N. J. Cherepy, J. D. Kuntz, Z. Seely, S. Fisher, O. B. Drury, B. Sturm, “Transparent ceramic scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and radiography,” Proc. SPIE 7805, 78050I (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Dujardin, D. Amans, A. Belsky, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, A. Pillonnet, “Luminescence and scintillation properties at the nanoscale,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1348–1354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Biswas, A. D. Sontakke, J. Ghosh, K. Annapurna, “Enhanced blue emission from transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Pr3+:BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1010–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. V. van Loef, C. M. Wilson, N. J. Cherepy, G. Hull, S. A. Payne, W.-S. Choong, W. W. Moses, K. S. Shah, “Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 869–872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, “Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics,” Acta Mater. 57, 5956–5963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett. 9, 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. D. Milbrath, A. J. Peurrung, M. Bliss, W. J. Weber, “Radiation detector materials: an overview,” J. Mater. Res. 23, 2561–2581 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Mortier, A. Bensalah, G. Dantelle, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien, “Rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics and fluoride ceramics: synthesis and optical properties,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1263–1270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, A. J. J. Bos, J. T. M. de Haas, S. Kraft, E. Maddox, A. Owens, F. G. A. Quarati, C. Dathy, V. Ouspenski, “Effect of proton dose, crystal size, and cerium concentration on scintillation yield and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 736–740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Milbrath, B. J. Choate, J. E. Fast, W. K. Hensley, R. T. Kouzes, J. E. Schweppe, “Comparison of LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) scintillators for radio-isotope identification devices,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572, 774–784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Darwish, M. M. Gomaa, “Effect of compositional changes on the structure and properties of alkali-alumino borosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 17, 35–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensalah, M. Mortier, G. Patriarche, P. Gredin, D. Vivien, “Synthesis and optical characterizations of undoped and rare-earth-doped CaF2 nanoparticles,” J. Solid State Chem. 179, 2636–2644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. A. Flores-Gonzalez, G. Ledoux, S. Roux, K. Lebbou, P. Perriat, O. Tillement, “Preparing nanometer scaled Tb-doped Y2O3 luminescent powders by the polyol method,” J. Solid State Chem. 178, 989–997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Qian, “Partitioning of gadolinium and its induced phase separation in sodium-aluminoborosilicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 333, 1–15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Strek, “Size effects on optical properties of Lu2O3:Eu3+ nanocrystallites,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 332–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, “Radiation damage induced by gamma irradiation on Ce3+ doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum Methods Phys. Res. A 476, 785–789 (2002).

M. Moszynski, J. Zalipska, M. Balcerzyk, M. Kapusta, W. Mengesha, J. Valentine, “Intrinsic energy resolution of NaI(Tl),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 484, 259–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. V. van Loef, “Optical and scintillation properties of pure and Ce3+ doped GdBr3,” Opt. Commun. 189, 297–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. E. Van Eijk, “New inorganic scintillators: aspects of energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 244–248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, Z. Hairong, S. P. Feofilov, M. J. Dejneka, B. M. Tissue, H. B. Yuan, “Effect of the matrix on the radiative lifetimes of rare earth doped nanoparticles embedded in matrices,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 217–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Li, D. M. Strachan, H. Li, L. L. Davis, M. Qian, “Crystallization of gadolinium- and lanthanum-containing phases from sodium alumino-borosilicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 46–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, G. Patriarche, “Structural characterisation of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 4849–4856 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Wang, J. Ohwaki, “New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for efficient frequency upconversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, R. W. Hollander, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+ doped BaF2 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38, 178–183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1948

R. Hofstadter, “Alkali halide scintillation counters,” Phys. Rev. 74, 100 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Ahle, L. E.

N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amans, D.

C. Dujardin, D. Amans, A. Belsky, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, A. Pillonnet, “Luminescence and scintillation properties at the nanoscale,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1348–1354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Annapurna, K.

K. Biswas, A. D. Sontakke, J. Ghosh, K. Annapurna, “Enhanced blue emission from transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Pr3+:BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1010–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Antolovich, S. D.

J. P. Schaffer, A. Saxena, S. D. Antolovich, T. H. J. Sanders, S. B. Warner, The Science & Design of Engineering Materials, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1999).

Baccaro, S.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, “Radiation damage induced by gamma irradiation on Ce3+ doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum Methods Phys. Res. A 476, 785–789 (2002).

Balcerzyk, M.

M. Moszynski, J. Zalipska, M. Balcerzyk, M. Kapusta, W. Mengesha, J. Valentine, “Intrinsic energy resolution of NaI(Tl),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 484, 259–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belsky, A.

C. Dujardin, D. Amans, A. Belsky, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, A. Pillonnet, “Luminescence and scintillation properties at the nanoscale,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1348–1354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bensalah, A.

M. Mortier, A. Bensalah, G. Dantelle, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien, “Rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics and fluoride ceramics: synthesis and optical properties,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1263–1270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensalah, M. Mortier, G. Patriarche, P. Gredin, D. Vivien, “Synthesis and optical characterizations of undoped and rare-earth-doped CaF2 nanoparticles,” J. Solid State Chem. 179, 2636–2644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, S.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett. 9, 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, “Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics,” Acta Mater. 57, 5956–5963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, K.

K. Biswas, A. D. Sontakke, J. Ghosh, K. Annapurna, “Enhanced blue emission from transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Pr3+:BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1010–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, M.

B. D. Milbrath, A. J. Peurrung, M. Bliss, W. J. Weber, “Radiation detector materials: an overview,” J. Mater. Res. 23, 2561–2581 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bocker, C.

C. Bocker, S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, “Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics,” Acta Mater. 57, 5956–5963 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett. 9, 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bos, A. J. J.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, A. J. J. Bos, J. T. M. de Haas, S. Kraft, E. Maddox, A. Owens, F. G. A. Quarati, C. Dathy, V. Ouspenski, “Effect of proton dose, crystal size, and cerium concentration on scintillation yield and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 736–740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burger, A.

N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cannas, C.

M. Nikl, D. Niznansky, J. Ruzicka, C. Cannas, T. Yanagida, “Silicate glass-based nanocomposite scinillators,” in Advances in Nanocomposite Technology, A. Hashim, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 201–226.

Cecilia, A.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, “Radiation damage induced by gamma irradiation on Ce3+ doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum Methods Phys. Res. A 476, 785–789 (2002).

Chaput, F.

C. Dujardin, D. Amans, A. Belsky, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, A. Pillonnet, “Luminescence and scintillation properties at the nanoscale,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1348–1354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherepy, N. J.

N. J. Cherepy, J. D. Kuntz, Z. Seely, S. Fisher, O. B. Drury, B. Sturm, “Transparent ceramic scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and radiography,” Proc. SPIE 7805, 78050I (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. V. van Loef, C. M. Wilson, N. J. Cherepy, G. Hull, S. A. Payne, W.-S. Choong, W. W. Moses, K. S. Shah, “Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 869–872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choate, B. J.

B. D. Milbrath, B. J. Choate, J. E. Fast, W. K. Hensley, R. T. Kouzes, J. E. Schweppe, “Comparison of LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) scintillators for radio-isotope identification devices,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572, 774–784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choong, W.-S.

E. V. van Loef, C. M. Wilson, N. J. Cherepy, G. Hull, S. A. Payne, W.-S. Choong, W. W. Moses, K. S. Shah, “Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 869–872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dantelle, G.

M. Mortier, A. Bensalah, G. Dantelle, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien, “Rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics and fluoride ceramics: synthesis and optical properties,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1263–1270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, H.

H. Darwish, M. M. Gomaa, “Effect of compositional changes on the structure and properties of alkali-alumino borosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 17, 35–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dathy, C.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, A. J. J. Bos, J. T. M. de Haas, S. Kraft, E. Maddox, A. Owens, F. G. A. Quarati, C. Dathy, V. Ouspenski, “Effect of proton dose, crystal size, and cerium concentration on scintillation yield and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 736–740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. L.

L. Li, D. M. Strachan, H. Li, L. L. Davis, M. Qian, “Crystallization of gadolinium- and lanthanum-containing phases from sodium alumino-borosilicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 46–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Haas, J. T. M.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, A. J. J. Bos, J. T. M. de Haas, S. Kraft, E. Maddox, A. Owens, F. G. A. Quarati, C. Dathy, V. Ouspenski, “Effect of proton dose, crystal size, and cerium concentration on scintillation yield and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 736–740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dejneka, M. J.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, Z. Hairong, S. P. Feofilov, M. J. Dejneka, B. M. Tissue, H. B. Yuan, “Effect of the matrix on the radiative lifetimes of rare earth doped nanoparticles embedded in matrices,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 217–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

W. Drozdowski, P. Dorenbos, A. J. J. Bos, J. T. M. de Haas, S. Kraft, E. Maddox, A. Owens, F. G. A. Quarati, C. Dathy, V. Ouspenski, “Effect of proton dose, crystal size, and cerium concentration on scintillation yield and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 736–740 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
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M. Nikl, D. Niznansky, J. Ruzicka, C. Cannas, T. Yanagida, “Silicate glass-based nanocomposite scinillators,” in Advances in Nanocomposite Technology, A. Hashim, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 201–226.

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B. D. Milbrath, B. J. Choate, J. E. Fast, W. K. Hensley, R. T. Kouzes, J. E. Schweppe, “Comparison of LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) scintillators for radio-isotope identification devices,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572, 774–784 (2007).
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N. J. Cherepy, J. D. Kuntz, Z. Seely, S. Fisher, O. B. Drury, B. Sturm, “Transparent ceramic scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and radiography,” Proc. SPIE 7805, 78050I (2010).
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K. Biswas, A. D. Sontakke, J. Ghosh, K. Annapurna, “Enhanced blue emission from transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Pr3+:BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1010–1017 (2010).
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N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
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R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, Z. Hairong, S. P. Feofilov, M. J. Dejneka, B. M. Tissue, H. B. Yuan, “Effect of the matrix on the radiative lifetimes of rare earth doped nanoparticles embedded in matrices,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 217–220 (2001).
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A. Bensalah, M. Mortier, G. Patriarche, P. Gredin, D. Vivien, “Synthesis and optical characterizations of undoped and rare-earth-doped CaF2 nanoparticles,” J. Solid State Chem. 179, 2636–2644 (2006).
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B. D. Milbrath, A. J. Peurrung, M. Bliss, W. J. Weber, “Radiation detector materials: an overview,” J. Mater. Res. 23, 2561–2581 (2008).
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E. V. van Loef, C. M. Wilson, N. J. Cherepy, G. Hull, S. A. Payne, W.-S. Choong, W. W. Moses, K. S. Shah, “Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 869–872 (2009).
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M. Nikl, D. Niznansky, J. Ruzicka, C. Cannas, T. Yanagida, “Silicate glass-based nanocomposite scinillators,” in Advances in Nanocomposite Technology, A. Hashim, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 201–226.

Yen, W. M.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, Z. Hairong, S. P. Feofilov, M. J. Dejneka, B. M. Tissue, H. B. Yuan, “Effect of the matrix on the radiative lifetimes of rare earth doped nanoparticles embedded in matrices,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 217–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. B.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, Z. Hairong, S. P. Feofilov, M. J. Dejneka, B. M. Tissue, H. B. Yuan, “Effect of the matrix on the radiative lifetimes of rare earth doped nanoparticles embedded in matrices,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 217–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zalipska, J.

M. Moszynski, J. Zalipska, M. Balcerzyk, M. Kapusta, W. Mengesha, J. Valentine, “Intrinsic energy resolution of NaI(Tl),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 484, 259–269 (2002).
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Acta Mater.

C. Bocker, S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, “Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics,” Acta Mater. 57, 5956–5963 (2009).
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C. Dujardin, D. Amans, A. Belsky, F. Chaput, G. Ledoux, A. Pillonnet, “Luminescence and scintillation properties at the nanoscale,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 1348–1354 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

E. V. van Loef, C. M. Wilson, N. J. Cherepy, G. Hull, S. A. Payne, W.-S. Choong, W. W. Moses, K. S. Shah, “Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 869–872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, R. W. Hollander, “Scintillation properties of Ce3+ doped BaF2 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38, 178–183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd.

W. Strek, “Size effects on optical properties of Lu2O3:Eu3+ nanocrystallites,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 332–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

K. Biswas, A. D. Sontakke, J. Ghosh, K. Annapurna, “Enhanced blue emission from transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing Pr3+:BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 1010–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, Z. Hairong, S. P. Feofilov, M. J. Dejneka, B. M. Tissue, H. B. Yuan, “Effect of the matrix on the radiative lifetimes of rare earth doped nanoparticles embedded in matrices,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 217–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

B. D. Milbrath, A. J. Peurrung, M. Bliss, W. J. Weber, “Radiation detector materials: an overview,” J. Mater. Res. 23, 2561–2581 (2008).
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J. Mater. Sci.

M. Mortier, G. Patriarche, “Structural characterisation of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 4849–4856 (2000).
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L. Li, D. M. Strachan, H. Li, L. L. Davis, M. Qian, “Crystallization of gadolinium- and lanthanum-containing phases from sodium alumino-borosilicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 272, 46–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Qian, “Partitioning of gadolinium and its induced phase separation in sodium-aluminoborosilicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 333, 1–15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

M. A. Flores-Gonzalez, G. Ledoux, S. Roux, K. Lebbou, P. Perriat, O. Tillement, “Preparing nanometer scaled Tb-doped Y2O3 luminescent powders by the polyol method,” J. Solid State Chem. 178, 989–997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensalah, M. Mortier, G. Patriarche, P. Gredin, D. Vivien, “Synthesis and optical characterizations of undoped and rare-earth-doped CaF2 nanoparticles,” J. Solid State Chem. 179, 2636–2644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

C. W. E. Van Eijk, “New inorganic scintillators: aspects of energy resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 471, 244–248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Milbrath, B. J. Choate, J. E. Fast, W. K. Hensley, R. T. Kouzes, J. E. Schweppe, “Comparison of LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) scintillators for radio-isotope identification devices,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572, 774–784 (2007).
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M. Moszynski, J. Zalipska, M. Balcerzyk, M. Kapusta, W. Mengesha, J. Valentine, “Intrinsic energy resolution of NaI(Tl),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 484, 259–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. V. van Loef, “Optical and scintillation properties of pure and Ce3+ doped GdBr3,” Opt. Commun. 189, 297–304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, A. Bensalah, G. Dantelle, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien, “Rare-earth doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics and fluoride ceramics: synthesis and optical properties,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1263–1270 (2007).
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N. J. Cherepy, B. W. Sturm, O. B. Drury, T. A. Hurst, S. A. Sheets, L. E. Ahle, C. K. Saw, M. A. Pearson, S. A. Payne, A. Burger, L. A. Boatner, J. O. Ramey, E. V. van Loef, J. Glodo, R. Hawrami, W. M. Higgins, K. S. Shah, W. W. Moses, “SrI2 scintillator for gamma rays spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7449, 74490F (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cherepy, J. D. Kuntz, Z. Seely, S. Fisher, O. B. Drury, B. Sturm, “Transparent ceramic scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and radiography,” Proc. SPIE 7805, 78050I (2010).
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M. Nikl, D. Niznansky, J. Ruzicka, C. Cannas, T. Yanagida, “Silicate glass-based nanocomposite scinillators,” in Advances in Nanocomposite Technology, A. Hashim, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 201–226.

I. Fanderlik, Optical Properties of Glass (Elsevier, 1983).

J. E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science & Technology, 2nd ed. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009).

J. P. Schaffer, A. Saxena, S. D. Antolovich, T. H. J. Sanders, S. B. Warner, The Science & Design of Engineering Materials, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1999).

K. Kohmoto, “Phosphors for lamps and displays,” in Phosphor Handbook, 2nd ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Chap. 5, Vol. 225, pp. 1–2.

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic, 1994).

A. Paul, Chemistry of Glasses, 2nd ed. (Chapman & Hall, 1990).

Z. Strnad, Glass-Ceramic Materials (Elsevier, 1986).

T. Kojima, T. Hisamune, “Phosphors for plasma display panels,” in Phosphor Handbook, 2nd ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Chap. 10, Vol. 311, p. 1.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

DTA trace showing exothermic reaction temperatures used in aging studies. Because the peaks were severely convoluted by background noise, aging studies were performed at each temperature to characterize the phase precipitated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Luminescence intensities for glass samples with total concentration of scintillating compounds ranging from 18 mol. % to 22 mol. %. Maximum luminescence intensity occurred at 405 nm for all specimens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Luminescence intensities for glass samples with CeBr 3 concentration ranging from 0 to 6 mol. %. Maximum luminescence intensity occurred at 405 nm for all specimens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Luminescence intensities for 19 mol. % GdBr 3 (4 mol. % Ce) glasses aged for varying times at 750°C. Maximum luminescence intensity occurred at 405 nm for all specimens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Powder XRD spectra from billets aged for varying times at 750°C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM micrograph showing surface crystallites formed in the NAS glass during aging at 750°C. These crystallites were not detected in XRD scans and did not appear in SEM analysis after being lapped and polished.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Luminescence intensities for billets aged for 24 and 48 h at 815°C. Maximum luminescence intensity occurred at 405 nm for all specimens.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

XRD spectra of aged for 24 and 48 h at 815°C.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

TEM image showing amorphous structure of NAS glass aged for 24 h at 815°C.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

TEM image showing clustered crystallites precipitated in a sample of NAS glass aged for 48 h at 815°C.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Luminescence intensities from billets aged for varying times at 950°C. Maximum luminescence intensity occurred at 405 nm for all specimens.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Powder XRD spectra from billets aged for varying times at 950°C. Powder diffraction file (PDF) reference peaks for the Ce0.7Gd0.3O1.85 (PDF 00-046-0507) phase are shown.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

SEM micrograph of a sample aged for 12 h at 950°C. The large, plate-like crystallites contributed to loss of sample transparency and seem to correspond to an Al 2 SiO 5 phase based on XRD analysis.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Unaged disks under ambient (upper) and UV exposure (lower). Disk 3 (far right) has two large trapped bubbles, which likely contributed to its lower energy resolution.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Cs-137 gamma-ray spectra generated by samples of as-cast glass, composition 15 mol. % GdBr 3 , 4 mol. % CeBr 3 relative to base glass.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Am-241 alpha-particle spectra generated by samples of as-cast glass, composition 15 mol. % GdBr 3 , 4 mol. % CeBr 3 relative to base glass.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Cs-137 gamma-ray spectra generated by glass–ceramic samples aged at 815°C, composition 15 mol. % GdBr 3 , 4 mol. % CeBr 3 relative to base glass.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Am-241 alpha-particle spectra generated by glass–ceramic samples aged at 815°C, composition 15 mol. % GdBr 3 , 4 mol. % CeBr 3 relative to base glass.

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