Abstract

Issues important for new ultrashort-pulse-measurement techniques include the generation of theoretical example traces for common pulses, validity ranges, ambiguities, coherent artifacts, device calibration sensitivity, iterative retrieval convergence, and feedback regarding measurement accuracy. Unfortunately, in the past, such issues have gone unconsidered, yielding long histories of unsatisfactory measurements. We review these issues here in the hope that future proposers of new techniques will consider them without delay, and, as an example, we address them for a relatively new technique: self-referenced spectral interferometry.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Rhodes, G. Steinmeyer, J. Ratner, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 557–565 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ratner, G. Steinmeyer, T. C. Wong, R. Bartels, and R. Trebino, “Coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2874–2876 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20  nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2408–2410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xing, L. Chai, W. Zhang, and C.-Y. Wang, “Regular, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behavior in a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 162, 71–74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, “Influence of the calibration of the detector on spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1160–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

A. Hook and M. Karlsson, “Soliton instabilities and pulse compression in minimum dispersion fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1831–1841 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Lai and J. C. Diels, “Complete diagnostic of ultrashort pulses without nonlinear process,” Opt. Commun. 88, 319–325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Q. Bi, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation of coherent photon seeding: a new technique to stabilize synchronously pumped mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 81, 408–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Catherall and G. New, “Role of spontaneous emission in the dynamics of mode locking by synchronous pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1593–1599 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J.-C. Diels, E. Van Stryland, and G. Benedict, “Generation and measurement of 200 femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 25, 93–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Viénot, “Notions de réponse impulsionnelle et de fonction de transfert temporelles des pupilles optiques, justifications expérimentales et applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt 4, 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. A. Pike and M. Hercher, “Basis for picosecond structure in mode-locked laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4562–4565 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. A. Fisher and J. J. A. Fleck, “On the phase characteristics and compression of picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 287–290 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

H. P. Weber, “Comments on the pulse width measurement with two-photon excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Lett. A 27, 321–322 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Klauder, M. A. Duguay, J. A. Giordmaine, and S. L. Shapiro, “Correlation effects in the display of picosecond pulses by two-photon techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 174–176 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, “Measurement of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

D. A. Berkley and G. J. Wolga, “Coherence studies of emission from a pulsed ruby laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 479–482 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

E. J. Akutowicz, “On the determination of the phase of a Fourier integral, I,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 83, 234–239 (1956).

Akutowicz, E. J.

E. J. Akutowicz, “On the determination of the phase of a Fourier integral, I,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 83, 234–239 (1956).

Albert, O.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antonucci, L.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, “Measurement of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R.

Beck, M.

V. Wong, R. J. Koshel, M. Beck, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of pulses from passively mode-locked lasers,” presented at the OE/LASE’93: Optics, Electro-Optics, & Laser Applications in Science & Engineering, 1993.

Benedict, G.

J.-C. Diels, E. Van Stryland, and G. Benedict, “Generation and measurement of 200 femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 25, 93–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Berkley, D. A.

D. A. Berkley and G. J. Wolga, “Coherence studies of emission from a pulsed ruby laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 479–482 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bi, J. Q.

J. Q. Bi, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation of coherent photon seeding: a new technique to stabilize synchronously pumped mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 81, 408–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boschetto, D.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, J.

Butkus, M.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Canova, L.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Catherall, J.

J. Catherall and G. New, “Role of spontaneous emission in the dynamics of mode locking by synchronous pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1593–1599 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cha, Y. H.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chai, L.

Q. Xing, L. Chai, W. Zhang, and C.-Y. Wang, “Regular, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behavior in a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 162, 71–74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chaudet, P.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chériaux, G.

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chong, A.

Chung, J.-H.

J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Côté, D.

Couairon, A.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Coudreau, S.

T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Moulet, N. Forget, R. Herzog, S. Coudreau, and T. Oksenhendler, “Characterization and optimization of a femtosecond laser by self-referenced spectral interferometry,” presented at the 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 16–21 May2010.

Crozatier, V.

T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

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M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
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R. A. Fisher and J. J. A. Fleck, “On the phase characteristics and compression of picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 287–290 (1969).
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M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
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T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
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L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
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J. R. Klauder, M. A. Duguay, J. A. Giordmaine, and S. L. Shapiro, “Correlation effects in the display of picosecond pulses by two-photon techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 174–176 (1968).
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M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
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T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
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H. A. Pike and M. Hercher, “Basis for picosecond structure in mode-locked laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4562–4565 (1970).
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T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
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M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
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T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
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A. Hook and M. Karlsson, “Soliton instabilities and pulse compression in minimum dispersion fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1831–1841 (1994).
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B. Schenkel, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression with supercontinuum generation in microstructure fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 687–693 (2005).
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J. R. Klauder, M. A. Duguay, J. A. Giordmaine, and S. L. Shapiro, “Correlation effects in the display of picosecond pulses by two-photon techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 174–176 (1968).
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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
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A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
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C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Viénot, “Notions de réponse impulsionnelle et de fonction de transfert temporelles des pupilles optiques, justifications expérimentales et applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt 4, 183–196 (1973).
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M. Lai and J. C. Diels, “Complete diagnostic of ultrashort pulses without nonlinear process,” Opt. Commun. 88, 319–325 (1992).
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Lienau, C.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
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M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
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M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
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L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
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L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
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A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
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A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
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A. Moulet, N. Forget, R. Herzog, S. Coudreau, and T. Oksenhendler, “Characterization and optimization of a femtosecond laser by self-referenced spectral interferometry,” presented at the 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 16–21 May2010.

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M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
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Oksenhendler, T.

T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
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A. Moulet, N. Forget, R. Herzog, S. Coudreau, and T. Oksenhendler, “Characterization and optimization of a femtosecond laser by self-referenced spectral interferometry,” presented at the 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 16–21 May2010.

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A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
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Rafailov, E. U.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
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M. Rhodes, G. Steinmeyer, J. Ratner, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 557–565 (2013).
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J. Ratner, G. Steinmeyer, T. C. Wong, R. Bartels, and R. Trebino, “Coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2874–2876 (2012).
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Rentzepis, P. M.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
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M. Rhodes, G. Steinmeyer, J. Ratner, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 557–565 (2013).
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A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
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G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
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A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
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A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
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Shapiro, S. L.

J. R. Klauder, M. A. Duguay, J. A. Giordmaine, and S. L. Shapiro, “Correlation effects in the display of picosecond pulses by two-photon techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 174–176 (1968).
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Sosnowski, T.

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M. Rhodes, G. Steinmeyer, J. Ratner, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 557–565 (2013).
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L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
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G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
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L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
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Trebino, R.

M. Rhodes, G. Steinmeyer, J. Ratner, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 557–565 (2013).
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J. Ratner, G. Steinmeyer, T. C. Wong, R. Bartels, and R. Trebino, “Coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2874–2876 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and P. Kvam, “Determining error bars in measurements of ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2400–2405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, “Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical-gating measurements of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955–1967 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).

Tropper, A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Van Stryland, E.

J.-C. Diels, E. Van Stryland, and G. Benedict, “Generation and measurement of 200 femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 25, 93–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Viénot, J. C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Viénot, “Notions de réponse impulsionnelle et de fonction de transfert temporelles des pupilles optiques, justifications expérimentales et applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt 4, 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong, R. J. Koshel, M. Beck, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of pulses from passively mode-locked lasers,” presented at the OE/LASE’93: Optics, Electro-Optics, & Laser Applications in Science & Engineering, 1993.

Wang, C.-Y.

Q. Xing, L. Chai, W. Zhang, and C.-Y. Wang, “Regular, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behavior in a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 162, 71–74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Warmuth, C.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

Weber, H. P.

J. Q. Bi, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation of coherent photon seeding: a new technique to stabilize synchronously pumped mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 81, 408–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, “Comments on the pulse width measurement with two-photon excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Lett. A 27, 321–322 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wecht, K. W.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

Wolga, G. J.

D. A. Berkley and G. J. Wolga, “Coherence studies of emission from a pulsed ruby laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 479–482 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Wong, T. C.

Wong, V.

V. Wong, R. J. Koshel, M. Beck, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of pulses from passively mode-locked lasers,” presented at the OE/LASE’93: Optics, Electro-Optics, & Laser Applications in Science & Engineering, 1993.

Wyatt, A.

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Q. Xing, L. Chai, W. Zhang, and C.-Y. Wang, “Regular, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behavior in a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 162, 71–74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Zeek, E.

Zhang, W.

Q. Xing, L. Chai, W. Zhang, and C.-Y. Wang, “Regular, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behavior in a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 162, 71–74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

G. Stibenz, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, C. Warmuth, A. Wyatt, I. Walmsley, and G. Steinmeyer, “Advanced methods for the characterization of few-cycle light pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S67–S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Oksenhendler, S. Coudreau, N. Forget, V. Crozatier, S. Grabielle, R. Herzog, O. Gobert, and D. Kaplan, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 7–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Jullien, L. Canova, O. Albert, D. Boschetto, L. Antonucci, Y. H. Cha, J. P. Rousseau, P. Chaudet, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, S. Kourtev, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “Spectral broadening and pulse duration reduction during cross-polarized wave generation: influence of the quadratic spectral phase,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 595–601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216–218 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, “Measurement of picosecond laser pulse widths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16–18 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Klauder, M. A. Duguay, J. A. Giordmaine, and S. L. Shapiro, “Correlation effects in the display of picosecond pulses by two-photon techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 174–176 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fisher and J. J. A. Fleck, “On the phase characteristics and compression of picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 287–290 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

A. Hook and M. Karlsson, “Soliton instabilities and pulse compression in minimum dispersion fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1831–1841 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Catherall and G. New, “Role of spontaneous emission in the dynamics of mode locking by synchronous pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1593–1599 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J.-H. Chung and A. M. Weiner, “Ambiguity of ultrashort pulse shapes retrieved from the intensity autocorrelation and the power spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 656–666 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. Pike and M. Hercher, “Basis for picosecond structure in mode-locked laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4562–4565 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (7)

Laser Photon. Rev. (3)

K. G. Wilcox and A. C. Tropper, “Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 422–423 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Rhodes, G. Steinmeyer, J. Ratner, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-shape instabilities and their measurement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 557–565 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. Hamilton, “Reply to comment on SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 555–556 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM‐free mode‐locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60  fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3, 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Rev. Opt (1)

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Viénot, “Notions de réponse impulsionnelle et de fonction de transfert temporelles des pupilles optiques, justifications expérimentales et applications,” Nouv. Rev. Opt 4, 183–196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

Q. Xing, L. Chai, W. Zhang, and C.-Y. Wang, “Regular, period-doubling, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behavior in a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 162, 71–74 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Diels, E. Van Stryland, and G. Benedict, “Generation and measurement of 200 femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 25, 93–96 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Bi, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, “Numerical simulation of coherent photon seeding: a new technique to stabilize synchronously pumped mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 81, 408–418 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Lai and J. C. Diels, “Complete diagnostic of ultrashort pulses without nonlinear process,” Opt. Commun. 88, 319–325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

H. P. Weber, “Comments on the pulse width measurement with two-photon excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Lett. A 27, 321–322 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. A. Berkley and G. J. Wolga, “Coherence studies of emission from a pulsed ruby laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 479–482 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, W. Kaiser, and J. A. Giordmaine, “Intense light bursts in the stimulated Raman effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1275–1277 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Math. Soc. (1)

E. J. Akutowicz, “On the determination of the phase of a Fourier integral, I,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 83, 234–239 (1956).

Other (4)

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).

A. Moulet, N. Forget, R. Herzog, S. Coudreau, and T. Oksenhendler, “Characterization and optimization of a femtosecond laser by self-referenced spectral interferometry,” presented at the 2010 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS), 16–21 May2010.

T. Oksenhendler, “Self-referenced spectral interferometry theory,” arXiv:1204.4949 (2012).

V. Wong, R. J. Koshel, M. Beck, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of pulses from passively mode-locked lasers,” presented at the OE/LASE’93: Optics, Electro-Optics, & Laser Applications in Science & Engineering, 1993.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Single-shot intensity autocorrelations of pulses of increasing complexity [5]. Very complex pulses actually have very simple autocorrelations. Note the coherence spike in each autocorrelation, which indicates only the coherence time of the pulse, and not the pulse length. This coherence time indicates the characteristic temporal modulation period within the much wider enveloping structure of the pulse.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase-retrieval algorithm for SRSI [41]. S ( ω ) is the spectrum of the input pulse to be measured, and ϕ unk ( ω ) is its phase.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example SRSI traces for Gaussian pulses with positive and negative chirp, cubic spectral phase, and quartic spectral phase, as well as a Gaussian double pulse (pulse separation is 3 times the pulse FWHM), a Gaussian pulse after self-phase modulation, and time-gated thermal noise. For reference, the SRSI trace for a flat-phase Gaussian pulse is also plotted (black dashed line), and the peaks of the fringes of both curves are marked with circles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example simulated measurement of a pulse that is outside the validity range of SRSI. Left: retrieved spectral intensity (dark green) and phase (dark purple) with actual phase (light purple). Middle: retrieved temporal intensity (red) and phase (dark blue) with actual intensity (orange) and phase (cyan). Right: fundamental (light green thin solid line) and XPW (dotted gray line) spectra retrieved from the trace with independent fundamental spectrum (dark green thick line). The measurement underestimates the chirp of the pulse and its temporal duration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coherent-artifact simulation for SRSI. Example pulses are given on the left. The measurement and retrieved temporal and spectral intensity and phase are in the middle column (red is temporal intensity, blue is temporal phase, dark green is spectral intensity, and purple is spectral phase). On the right, four spectra are plotted for comparison: the (average) input spectrum (dark green thick solid line), the spectrum of the input pulse measured in the trace (bright green thin solid line), the spectrum of the XPW pulse measured in the trace (gray dotted line), and the spectrum of the retrieved XPW pulse (black dashed line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example simulated measurement that was not correctly retrieved. Left: retrieved spectral intensity (dark green) and phase (dark purple) with actual phase (light purple). Middle: retrieved temporal intensity (red) and phase (blue) with actual intensity (orange) and phase (cyan). Right: measured input (light green thin solid line) and XPW (gray dotted line) spectra from the trace with independent input spectrum (dark green thick solid line) and retrieved XPW spectrum (black dashed).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Example simulated measurement that was not correctly retrieved. See the caption of Fig. 6 for the color key.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Example simulated measurement that was correctly retrieved. See the caption of Fig. 6 for the color key.

Equations (1)

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E XPW ( t ) = | E ( t ) | 2 E ( t ) = F T 1 { E ( ω ) * E * ( ω ) * E ( ω ) } ,

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