Abstract

A Q-switched dual-wavelength fiber laser with narrow channel spacing is proposed and demonstrated. The fiber laser is built around a 3 m long erbium doped fiber as the gain medium and a 10 cm long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as the element used to generate the dual-wavelength output. The PCF has a solid core approximately 4.37 μm in diameter and is surrounded by microscopic air-holes with a diameter of about 5.06 μm each as well as a zero-dispersion wavelength of about 980 nm. A graphene oxide based saturable absorber is used to generate the desired pulsed output. At the maximum pump power of 72 mW the laser is capable of generating pulses with a repetition rate and pulse-width of 31.0 kHz and 7.0 μs, respectively, as well as an average output power and pulse energy of 0.086 mW and 2.8 nJ, respectively. The proposed fiber laser has substantial potential for use in applications that require longer duration pulsed outputs such as in range finding and terahertz radiation generation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94  µm,” J. Endourol. 19, 25–31 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. R. Grant, D. P. Holcomb, and T. H. Wood, “Pulsed Yb fiber laser for underwater communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  3. N. Nishizawa, “Wideband ultra-short pulse fiber lasers and their sensing applications,” in Optical Sensors (Optical Society of America, 2010).
  4. R. J. De Young and N. P. Barnes, “Profiling atmospheric water vapor using a fiber laser lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 562–567 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Liu, C. Ye, Z. Luo, H. Cheng, D. Wu, Y. Zheng, Z. Liu, and B. Qu, “High-energy passively Q-switched 2  μm Tm3+-doped double-clad fiber laser using graphene-oxide-deposited fiber taper,” Opt. Express 21, 204–209 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Ruan, P. Yan, H. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, J. Yang, and G. Huang, “Three operation regimes with an L-band ultrafast fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 716–722 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.
  17. J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 15474–15480 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. K. Bhadra and A. K. Ghatak, Guided Wave Optics and Photonic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).
  28. W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

J. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Ruan, P. Yan, H. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, J. Yang, and G. Huang, “Three operation regimes with an L-band ultrafast fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 716–722 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, C. Ye, Z. Luo, H. Cheng, D. Wu, Y. Zheng, Z. Liu, and B. Qu, “High-energy passively Q-switched 2  μm Tm3+-doped double-clad fiber laser using graphene-oxide-deposited fiber taper,” Opt. Express 21, 204–209 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. De Young and N. P. Barnes, “Profiling atmospheric water vapor using a fiber laser lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 49, 562–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94  µm,” J. Endourol. 19, 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adolphi, B.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Andrade-Lucio, J.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

Basko, D.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

S. K. Bhadra and A. K. Ghatak, Guided Wave Optics and Photonic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).

Bozoklu, G.

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Casiraghi, C.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.-K.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

Dai, Y.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Young, R. J.

Dikin, D. A.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dommett, G. H.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L. M.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Estudillo-Ayala, J.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Evmenenko, G.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fasoli, A.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94  µm,” J. Endourol. 19, 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ge-Guo, D.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ge-Lin, Z.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Georgi, C.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

S. K. Bhadra and A. K. Ghatak, Guided Wave Optics and Photonic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).

Grant, A. R.

A. R. Grant, D. P. Holcomb, and T. H. Wood, “Pulsed Yb fiber laser for underwater communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Guina, M.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez-Gutierrez, J.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-P.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Hang, Y.

Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harun, S. W.

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Haubner, K.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Garcia, J.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, D. P.

A. R. Grant, D. P. Holcomb, and T. H. Wood, “Pulsed Yb fiber laser for underwater communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Hu, J.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Huang, M.-F.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hui-Feng, W.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jaehne, E.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jauregui-Vazquez, D.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M. Y.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Jia, Z.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jian, S.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian-Qun, C.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jie, L.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jun-Qing, Z.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kiat, Y. Y.

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
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Kim, N.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Kivistö, S.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koskinen, R.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Lee, K.-S.

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leem, Y. A.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Li, H.

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, C.-y.

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Liu, D.

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.-K.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Liu, Z.-B.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lou, S.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Mata-Chavez, R.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Murawski, J.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murray, K. E.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94  µm,” J. Endourol. 19, 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N.

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, S. T.

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ning, G.

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
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N. Nishizawa, “Wideband ultra-short pulse fiber lasers and their sensing applications,” in Optical Sensors (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Noh, S. K.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Novoselov, K.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
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Okhotnikov, O.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olk, P.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paajaste, J.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Park, S.

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pei-Guang, Y.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, H.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qu, B.

Rojas-Laguna, R.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

Ruoff, R. S.

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Shuang-Chen, R.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sierra-Hernandez, J.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stankovich, S.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suomalainen, S.

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.-G.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S.

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, Y. H.

J. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Ruan, P. Yan, H. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, J. Yang, and G. Huang, “Three operation regimes with an L-band ultrafast fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 716–722 (2014).
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Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Rodriguez, E.

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, T.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wei, L.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weng, J.

Wood, T. H.

A. R. Grant, D. P. Holcomb, and T. H. Wood, “Pulsed Yb fiber laser for underwater communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Wu, D.

Wu, S.

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P.

Yan, W.-B.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yang, Q.-H.

Yang, Y.

Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

Yee, D.-S.

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Yong-Gang, W.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yong-Qin, Y.

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.-L.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

Zhou, D.-P.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

Ziegler, C.

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimney, E. J.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zou, H.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zulkifli, A. Z.

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

S. Park, K.-S. Lee, G. Bozoklu, W. Cai, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene oxide papers modified by divalent ions—enhancing mechanical properties via chemical cross-linking,” ACS Nano 2, 572–578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Zhao, Z.-B. Liu, W.-B. Yan, Y. Wu, X.-L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. Haubner, J. Murawski, P. Olk, L. M. Eng, C. Ziegler, B. Adolphi, and E. Jaehne, “The route to functional graphene oxide,” Chem. Phys. Chem. 11, 2131–2139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Jun-Qing, W. Yong-Gang, Y. Pei-Guang, R. Shuang-Chen, C. Jian-Qun, D. Ge-Guo, Y. Yong-Qin, Z. Ge-Lin, W. Hui-Feng, L. Jie, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene-oxide-based Q-switched fiber laser with stable five-wavelength operation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 114206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Z. Jia, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, X. Chen, Y. Dai, and S. Xie, “Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a simple linear cavity and its application in microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 187–189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Endourol. (1)

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94  µm,” J. Endourol. 19, 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

L. Chang, S. Wu, S. Chen, and X. Li, “Preparation of graphene oxide–molecularly imprinted polymer composites via atom transfer radical polymerization,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 2024–2029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (2)

J. Sierra-Hernandez, R. Rojas-Laguna, E. Vargas-Rodriguez, J. Estudillo-Ayala, R. Mata-Chavez, D. Jauregui-Vazquez, J. Hernandez-Garcia, J. Andrade-Lucio, and J. Gutierrez-Gutierrez, “A tunable multi-wavelength laser based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 23, 055105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, S. Feng, L. Wang, H. Li, T. Guo, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser based on a compact in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. 19, 2115–2119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. Novoselov, D. Basko, and A. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges,” Nano Lett. 9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448, 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

D. Liu, N. Ngo, G. Ning, P. Shum, and S. Tjin, “Tunable microwave photonic notch filter using a dual-wavelength fiber laser with phase modulation,” Opt. Commun. 266, 240–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, “Passive Q-switching of short-length Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers by polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe microchips,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5588–5591 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahmad, A. Z. Zulkifli, Y. Y. Kiat, and S. W. Harun, “Q-switched fibre laser using 21  cm Bismuth-erbium doped fibre and graphene oxide as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 310, 53–57 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C.-y. Liaw, “Short linear-cavity Q-switched fiber laser with a compact short carbon nanotube based saturable absorber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 105–107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Switchable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser using a side-leakage photonic crystal fiber based filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 611–616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Koskinen, S. Suomalainen, J. Paajaste, S. Kivistö, M. Guina, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Highly nonlinear GaSb-based saturable absorber mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 73540, 73540G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. R. Grant, D. P. Holcomb, and T. H. Wood, “Pulsed Yb fiber laser for underwater communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011).

N. Nishizawa, “Wideband ultra-short pulse fiber lasers and their sensing applications,” in Optical Sensors (Optical Society of America, 2010).

M. Y. Jeon, N. Kim, J. Shin, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, Y. A. Leem, D.-S. Yee, S. K. Noh, and K. H. Park, “Continuous terahertz wave emission using tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

S. K. Bhadra and A. K. Ghatak, Guided Wave Optics and Photonic Devices (CRC Press, 2013).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic image of GO layer surrounded by IMG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Raman spectrum of GO saturable absorber as on the ferrule of the optical connector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup of the narrowly spaced dual-wavelength Q-switched fiber laser. Inset is the cross-section image of the PCF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dual-wavelength laser spectra captured using a high-resolution OSA with a resolution of 0.16 pm at (a) CW and (b) Q-switching with GOSA assembly is employed in the laser cavity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Stability of the system with channel spacing of 170 pm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pulse train of the dual-wavelength Q-switched fiber laser pumped at 66 mW measured using digital oscilloscope.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Single pulse as obtained from pulse train. (b) Overlap of six consecutive pulses from the same pulse train with each pulse taken 10 s apart.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

First harmonic radio-frequency spectrum of the Q-switched DWFL.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Repetition rate and pulse width curves at different pump powers. (b) Pulse energy and average output power curves at different pump powers.

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