Abstract

Here we expand on the current methods of characterizing small astronomical bodies, particularly asteroids, by viewing stellar occultation events. Stellar occultation has proven to be a viable method for determining the size of moons and asteroids; however, it comes with some limitations. In general the method does not consider or use all of the known diffraction effects that occur and thus provides a nominal radius—not a shape—of the occluder. We show that most stellar occultation events involving small near-Earth asteroids occur with low Fresnel numbers. This in effect renders the traditional methods useless to characterize the shape, because no sharp shadow exists. We show that using similar data collection to that of the traditional occultation method and inverting a Fresnel diffraction equation by a phase retrieval process can yield a complete reconstruction of the silhouette of the occluder. The effect of noise in the measurements is also discussed. A practical example applied to the asteroid 25143 Itokawa is shown.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. F. Young, “A Fourier optics method for calculating stellar occultation light curves by objects with thin atmospheres,” Astron. J. 749, 1–13 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Roques, M. Moncuquet, and B. Sicardy, “Stellar occultations by small bodies: diffraction effects,” Astron. J. 93, 1549–1558 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. K. Ersoy, Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).
  9. R. E. English and N. George, “Diffraction patterns in the shadows of disks and obstacles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1581–1587 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).
  11. D. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford Univerity, 2006).
  12. J. Komrska, “Simple derivation of formulas for Fraunhofer diffraction at polygonal apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1382–1384 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Altwaijry and D. Hyland, “Detection and characterization of near Earth asteroids using stellar occultation,” in AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Hilton Head, South Carolina (2013), pp. 13–942.
  14. V. Laude, “Diffraction analysis of pixelated incoherent shadow casting,” Opt. Commun. 138, 394–402 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 2014).
  16. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, “Error function and Fresnel integrals,” in Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, 1972), pp. 300–302.
  17. “JAXA,” [Online]. Available: http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/snews/2005/1101_hayabusa.shtml . [Accessed 2014].
  18. R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. H. Brown, “Stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory,” Nature 218, 637–641 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays,” Nature 178, 1447–1448 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Trahan and D. Hyland, “Mitigating the effect of noise in the hybrid input-output method of phase retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3031–3037 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. R. Fienup and C. C. Wackerman, “Phase-retrieval stagnation problems and solutions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1897–1907 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Liu, “Object reconstruction from noisy holograms: multiplicative noise model,” Opt. Commun. 79, 402–406 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. J. Palumbo and A. M. Platzeck, “Diffraction by a circular aperture: a new approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 839–842 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Borovol, E. Naats, U. Oppel, and I. Grishin, “Shape characterization of a large nonspherical particle by use of its Fraunhofer diffraction pattern,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1989–1997 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Trahan and D. Hyland, “Mitigating the effect of noise in the hybrid input-output method of phase retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3031–3037 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

E. F. Young, “A Fourier optics method for calculating stellar occultation light curves by objects with thin atmospheres,” Astron. J. 749, 1–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

V. Laude, “Diffraction analysis of pixelated incoherent shadow casting,” Opt. Commun. 138, 394–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, “Object reconstruction from noisy holograms: multiplicative noise model,” Opt. Commun. 79, 402–406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

L. J. Palumbo and A. M. Platzeck, “Diffraction by a circular aperture: a new approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 839–842 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Roques, M. Moncuquet, and B. Sicardy, “Stellar occultations by small bodies: diffraction effects,” Astron. J. 93, 1549–1558 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1968 (1)

R. H. Brown, “Stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory,” Nature 218, 637–641 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1956 (2)

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays,” Nature 178, 1447–1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, “Error function and Fresnel integrals,” in Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, 1972), pp. 300–302.

Adams, E. R.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altwaijry, H.

H. Altwaijry and D. Hyland, “Detection and characterization of near Earth asteroids using stellar occultation,” in AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Hilton Head, South Carolina (2013), pp. 13–942.

Alvarez-Candal, A.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrei, A. H.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arlot, J. E.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Assafin, M.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Auvergne, M.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, B. A.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Behrend, R.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beisker, W.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellucci, A.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belskaya, I.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berger, B.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bickerton, S.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, C.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

Borovol, A.

Bosh, A. S.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brahic, A.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, J. W.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bright, L.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brimacombe, J.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brothers, T. C.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. H.

R. H. Brown, “Stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory,” Nature 218, 637–641 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays,” Nature 178, 1447–1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Brucker, M.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buil, C.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carrier, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chevreton, M.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colas, F.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colas, F. C.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cristaldi, S.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

da Silva Neto, D. N.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, V.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Di Sora, M.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doncel, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doressoundiram, A.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dravins, D.

D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, E. W.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DuPré, K.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, J. L.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

English, R. E.

Ersoy, O. K.

O. K. Ersoy, Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

Feinstein, C.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, C.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Fitzsimmons, A.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frappa, E.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaillard, B.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gal-Yam, A.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, D.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Gilmore, A.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grigsby, B.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grishin, I.

Gulbis, A. A. S.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hainaut, O.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hart, R.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hummel, E.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hyland, D.

R. Trahan and D. Hyland, “Mitigating the effect of noise in the hybrid input-output method of phase retrieval,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3031–3037 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Altwaijry and D. Hyland, “Detection and characterization of near Earth asteroids using stellar occultation,” in AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Hilton Head, South Carolina (2013), pp. 13–942.

Jacobson, G.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, C.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, H.

D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kakkala, M.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kavelaars, J. J.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klotz, A.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Komrska, J.

Lacombe, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, S.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laude, V.

V. Laude, “Diffraction analysis of pixelated incoherent shadow casting,” Opt. Commun. 138, 394–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lavayssiere, M.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazzaro, D.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

LeBohec, S.

D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lecacheux, J.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lecampion, J.-F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lellouch, E.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levato, H.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levine, S. E.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, “Object reconstruction from noisy holograms: multiplicative noise model,” Opt. Commun. 79, 402–406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Livio, M.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lockhart, M.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mallia, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marco, O.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, T.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masi, G.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mattingly, A.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maury, A.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, A. W.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michel, R.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Momiyama, T.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moncuquet, M.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Roques, M. Moncuquet, and B. Sicardy, “Stellar occultations by small bodies: diffraction effects,” Astron. J. 93, 1549–1558 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Montano, H. G.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morzinsky, K.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mousis, O.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naats, E.

Nelan, E.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nunez, P.

D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ofek, E. O.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oppel, U.

Paganin, D.

D. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford Univerity, 2006).

Palumbo, L. J.

Pasachoff, J. M.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pau, S.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, F. L.

F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 2014).

Pedrotti, L. M.

F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 2014).

Pedrotti, L. S.

F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 2014).

Peixinho, N.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Person, M. J.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pimentel, E.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Platzeck, A. M.

Ragozzine, D.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rapoport, S.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renner, S.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogues, F.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roques, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Roques, M. Moncuquet, and B. Sicardy, “Stellar occultations by small bodies: diffraction effects,” Astron. J. 93, 1549–1558 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rosing, W.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rousselot, P.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, E. V.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, W. H.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sari, R.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlichting, H. E.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Secrest, N.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sevre, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, S. S.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sicardy, B.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Roques, M. Moncuquet, and B. Sicardy, “Stellar occultations by small bodies: diffraction effects,” Astron. J. 93, 1549–1558 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Souza, S. P.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, “Error function and Fresnel integrals,” in Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, 1972), pp. 300–302.

Tancredi, G.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thouvenot, E.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thuillot, W.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tilleman, T.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, G. P.

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trahan, R.

Twiss, R. Q.

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays,” Nature 178, 1447–1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Vachier, F.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valleli, P.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veiga, C.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, J. L.

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vieira Martins, R.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Volz, B.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wackerman, C. C.

Weaver, D.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wenz, M.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Widemann, T.

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

Wolf, J.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. F.

E. F. Young, “A Fourier optics method for calculating stellar occultation light curves by objects with thin atmospheres,” Astron. J. 749, 1–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zambrano-Marin, L.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zangari, A. M.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, S.

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuluaga, C. A.

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. J. (3)

F. Rogues, A. Doressoundiram, V. Dhillon, T. Marsh, S. Bickerton, J. J. Kavelaars, M. Moncuquet, M. Auvergne, I. Belskaya, M. Chevreton, F. Colas, A. Fernandez, A. Fitzsimmons, J. Lecacheux, O. Mousis, S. Pau, N. Peixinho, and G. P. Tozzi, “Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by high-precision photometric stellar occultations: first results,” Astron. J. 132, 819–822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Young, “A Fourier optics method for calculating stellar occultation light curves by objects with thin atmospheres,” Astron. J. 749, 1–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Roques, M. Moncuquet, and B. Sicardy, “Stellar occultations by small bodies: diffraction effects,” Astron. J. 93, 1549–1558 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Astroparticle Phys. (1)

D. Dravins, S. LeBohec, H. Jensen, and P. Nunez, “Optical intensity interferometry with the Cherenkov Telescope Array,” Astroparticle Phys. 43, 331–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nature (7)

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy,” Nature 178, 1046–1048 (1956).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Brown, “Stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory,” Nature 218, 637–641 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays,” Nature 178, 1447–1448 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Elliot, M. J. Person, C. A. Zuluaga, A. S. Bosh, E. R. Adams, T. C. Brothers, A. A. S. Gulbis, S. E. Levine, M. Lockhart, A. M. Zangari, B. A. Babcock, K. DuPré, J. M. Pasachoff, S. P. Souza, W. Rosing, N. Secrest, L. Bright, E. W. Dunham, S. S. Sheppard, M. Kakkala, T. Tilleman, B. Berger, J. W. Briggs, G. Jacobson, P. Valleli, B. Volz, S. Rapoport, R. Hart, M. Brucker, R. Michel, A. Mattingly, L. Zambrano-Marin, A. W. Meyer, J. Wolf, E. V. Ryan, W. H. Ryan, K. Morzinsky, B. Grigsby, J. Brimacombe, D. Ragozzine, H. G. Montano, and A. Gilmore, “Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation,” Nature 465, 897–900 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, R. Vieira Martins, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssiere, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A. H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D. N. da Silva Neto, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F. Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi, “Charon’s size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation,” Nature 439, 52–54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sicardy, A. Brahic, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, F. Roques, J. E. Arlot, F. C. Colas, W. Thuillot, F. Sevre, J. L. Vidal, C. Blanco, S. Cristaldi, C. Buil, A. Klotz, and E. Thouvenot, “Probing Titan’s atmosphere by stellar occultation,” Nature 343, 350–353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Schlichting, E. O. Ofek, M. Wenz, R. Sari, A. Gal-Yam, M. Livio, E. Nelan, and S. Zucker, “A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data,” Nature 462, 895–897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. Laude, “Diffraction analysis of pixelated incoherent shadow casting,” Opt. Commun. 138, 394–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, “Object reconstruction from noisy holograms: multiplicative noise model,” Opt. Commun. 79, 402–406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

F. L. Pedrotti, L. M. Pedrotti, and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 3rd ed. (Pearson, 2014).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, “Error function and Fresnel integrals,” in Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, 1972), pp. 300–302.

“JAXA,” [Online]. Available: http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/snews/2005/1101_hayabusa.shtml . [Accessed 2014].

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, 1997).

D. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford Univerity, 2006).

O. K. Ersoy, Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2007).

H. Altwaijry and D. Hyland, “Detection and characterization of near Earth asteroids using stellar occultation,” in AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Hilton Head, South Carolina (2013), pp. 13–942.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of an object’s shadow showing the shadow zone (darkly shaded) and interference zone (lightly shaded) and the Fresnel and Fraunhofer regions. This model assumes a point source to the left of the occluder.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the star-occluder-observer system showing the shadow pattern moving across the Earth’s surface past observers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

True silhouette of the asteroid Itokawa pixelated in a 64×64 grid based on images from [15].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Coarse grid of intensity data for the asteroid Itokawa viewed with a Fresnel number of 0.87, which serves as the input to the phase retrieval algorithm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Error between intensity distribution of the estimated image and the measured intensity data.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Estimated silhouette of Itokawa pixelated in a 32×32 grid after one iteration.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Estimated silhouette of Itokawa pixelated in a 32×32 grid after 10 iterations.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Monte Carlo results showing the mean error of 25 trials at several noise levels.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Monte Carlo results showing the final mean error of 25 trials at several noise levels.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Example result after 10 iterations with a noise standard deviation of 0.2.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Example result after three iterations with a noise standard deviation of 0.2 and a Gaussian filter applied to the intensity data.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Monte Carlo results showing the final mean error of 25 trials at several noise levels with a Gaussian image filter applied to the intensity data.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Data collection pattern for 20 equally spaced apertures each 75 m apart. The red regions between the lines of data denote the absence of data. There are 128 intensity measurements along each aperture’s path through the shadow pattern. The full intensity distribution is identical to Fig. 4.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Silhouette estimate for eight apertures making 128 measurements each, i.e., ρ=1. This result demonstrates the need for more measurements than the theoretical minimum requirement.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=a2/zλ,
Γ(θ̲)={0,ifθ̲is inside the asteroid profile1,otherwise.
U(u̲)=zλR2Γ(θ̲)exp(iπzλθ̲·θ̲)exp(i2πzλu̲·θ̲)dθ̲.
J(u̲)=|zλR2Γ(θ̲)exp(iπzλθ̲·θ̲i2πzλu̲·θ̲+iπzλu̲·u̲)dθ̲|2=|zλR2Γ(θ̲)exp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲|2.
J(u̲)=|zλR2[1(1Γ(θ̲))]exp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲|2=|zλR2exp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲zλγexp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲|2,
Ai,j={(θx,θy)R2|0<θxθx,iΔx0<θyθy,jΔy}
J(u̲)=|zλR2exp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲zλi,j(1Γi,j)Ai,jexp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲|2.
E[x]=0xexp(iπt22)dt,
θy,1θy,2θx,1θx,2exp(iπzλ(u̲θ̲)2)dθ̲=[E(2zλθx,2)E(2zλθx,1)]×[E(2zλθy,2)E(2zλθy,1)].
J(u̲)=|i12i,j(1Γi,j)×(E[2zλ(θx,i+Δxu)]E[2zλ(θx,iu)])×(E[2zλ(θy,j+Δyv)]E[2zλ(θy,jv)])|2.
e=u̲^||J(u̲^i,j)|2|J^(u̲^i,j)|2|,
J^(u̲^)=|U^(u̲^)|2=|U(u̲^)(1+N(0,σ)+iN(0,σ))|2,
ρ=#Measurements#Pixels in Silhouette.

Metrics