Abstract

This study presents a hybrid Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber. The importance of the modulation frequency of the AOM in this dual-loss modulation system is examined with two distinct observations: (1) the periodic-ramp pulse characteristics with the modulation frequency, and (2) the existence of the intrinsic modulation frequency for minimizing the pulsewidth. The shortest pulsewidth and the highest peak power were 10.6 ns and 13.9 kW, respectively, at a pump power of 10 W. Compared with the passively Q-switched laser, which has a pulsewidth of 18.3 ns, the ratio of pulse compression reaches 42%. Finally, numerical simulations based on the rate equations are used to verify the experimental results.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode‐laser end‐pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Lin, C. C. Huang, and K. H. Lin, “Characteristics of Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser by acousto-optic modulator,” Laser Phys. 20, 1881–1885 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Li, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Compression of the pulse width in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with double Q-switches,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034204 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. J. Wang and Z. Y. Xu, “Single-longitudinal-mode operation of a 1  Watt combined actively and passively Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 13, 6693–6698 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. X. J. Wang and Z. Y. Xu, “Timing jitter and pulse width reduction in a hybrid Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1800–1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, “Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs,” Opt. Express 13, 1178–1187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. D. Wei, “Modeling a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with an application to spatio-temporal instability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 072701 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. K. Kuo and M. Birnbaum, “Characteristics of ruby passive Q switching with a Dy2+:CaF2 solid-state saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6829–6833 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. H. Lin, C. C. Huang, and K. H. Lin, “Characteristics of Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser by acousto-optic modulator,” Laser Phys. 20, 1881–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Wei, “Modeling a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with an application to spatio-temporal instability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 072701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. D. Wei, C. C. Cheng, and S. S. Wu, “Instability and satellite pulse of passively Q-switching Nd:LuVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hakulinen, R. Koskinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Low jitter Q-switched fiber laser using optically driven surface-normal saturable absorber modulator,” Opt. Express 16, 8720–8726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

X. J. Wang and Z. Y. Xu, “Timing jitter reduction and single-frequency operation in an acousto-optic Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8477–8483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang and Z. Y. Xu, “Timing jitter and pulse width reduction in a hybrid Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, L. J. Qian, and L. J. Qin, “Satellite pulse generation in diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 625–632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Jabczyński, W. Zendzian, and J. Kwiatkowski, “Q-switched mode-locking with acousto-optic modulator in a diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 14, 2184–2190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, “Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs,” Opt. Express 13, 1178–1187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Compression of the pulse width in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with double Q-switches,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang and Z. Y. Xu, “Single-longitudinal-mode operation of a 1  Watt combined actively and passively Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 13, 6693–6698 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode‐laser end‐pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

An, J.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

Birnbaum, M.

Y. K. Kuo and M. Birnbaum, “Characteristics of ruby passive Q switching with a Dy2+:CaF2 solid-state saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6829–6833 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode‐laser end‐pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

Chen, F.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

M. D. Wei, C. C. Cheng, and S. S. Wu, “Instability and satellite pulse of passively Q-switching Nd:LuVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

Fields, R. A.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode‐laser end‐pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

R. A. Fields, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode‐laser end‐pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Forsythe, G. E.

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations (Prentice-Hall, 1977).

Gavrielides, A.

Ge, H. B.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hakulinen, T.

Huang, C. C.

J. H. Lin, C. C. Huang, and K. H. Lin, “Characteristics of Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser by acousto-optic modulator,” Laser Phys. 20, 1881–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hull, D.

Jabczynski, J. K.

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Kobayashi, T.

Koskinen, R.

Kuo, Y. K.

Kwiatkowski, J.

Li, D.

Li, D. C.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Compression of the pulse width in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with double Q-switches,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, “Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs,” Opt. Express 13, 1178–1187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. Q.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. F.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. H.

J. H. Lin, C. C. Huang, and K. H. Lin, “Characteristics of Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser by acousto-optic modulator,” Laser Phys. 20, 1881–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. H.

J. H. Lin, C. C. Huang, and K. H. Lin, “Characteristics of Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser by acousto-optic modulator,” Laser Phys. 20, 1881–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malcolm, M. A.

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations (Prentice-Hall, 1977).

Maunier, C.

Meyn, J. P.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moler, C. B.

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations (Prentice-Hall, 1977).

Monocorge, R.

Mukai, A.

Ng, S. P.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, L. J. Qian, and L. J. Qin, “Satellite pulse generation in diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 625–632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nozawa, Y.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Ostroumov, V. G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, P.

Qian, L. J.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, L. J. Qian, and L. J. Qin, “Satellite pulse generation in diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 625–632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L. J.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, L. J. Qian, and L. J. Qin, “Satellite pulse generation in diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 625–632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherbakov, I. A.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Chap. 26.

Song, P.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

Taira, T.

Tang, D. Y.

S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, L. J. Qian, and L. J. Qin, “Satellite pulse generation in diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 625–632 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, X. J.

Wang, Z.

Weber, H.

Wei, M. D.

M. D. Wei, “Modeling a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with an application to spatio-temporal instability,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 072701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Wei, C. C. Cheng, and S. S. Wu, “Instability and satellite pulse of passively Q-switching Nd:LuVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. S.

M. D. Wei, C. C. Cheng, and S. S. Wu, “Instability and satellite pulse of passively Q-switching Nd:LuVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

Yan, R.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

G. Li, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Compression of the pulse width in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with double Q-switches,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, “Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs,” Opt. Express 13, 1178–1187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. G.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd: GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zendzian, W.

Zhang, G.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Li, F. Chen, and R. Yan, “Doubly Q-switched GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber under direct 879  nm diode pumping to the emitting level,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2569–2572 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, and K. Yang, “Compression of the pulse width in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with double Q-switches,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, D. Li, and J. Zou, “Pulse shape symmetry and pulse width reduction in diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with AO and GaAs,” Opt. Express 13, 1178–1187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. Z.

K. Cheng, S. Z. Zhao, Y. F. Li, G. Q. Li, D. C. Li, K. J. Yang, J. An, G. Zhang, H. B. Ge, and Z. G. Yu, “Diode-pumped doubly Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with AO modulator and GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 198–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, “Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 687–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup: LD, laser diode; OIA, optical imaging accessory; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; OC, output coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of (a) repetition frequency, (b) average output power, (c) pulsewidth, and (d) peak power on the modulation frequency of the AOM at pump power of 7 W. All four figures share the same abscissa.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of population density of SA (Ns) and population inversion of laser medium (Ng) within the modulation cycle and their corresponding pulse shape and system loss from the numerical simulations: (a) Ng, Ns for fAO=2kHz below fMW, (b) pulse shape and system loss for fAO=2kHz, (c) Ng, Ns for fAO=7kHz above fMW, and (d) pulse shape and system loss for fAO=7kHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerical results for (a) pulse repetition rate and (b) pulsewidth as a function of modulation frequency.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Numerical results for pulse symmetry, rising, and falling time as functions of the modulation frequency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Theoretical Calculation

Equations (4)

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dϕdt=ϕtr[2σglgNg2σslsNs(ln1R+δa(t)+L)],
dNgdt=PrγgNg2σgcϕNg,
dNsdt=γs(Ns0Ns)σscϕNs,
ηtexp(c1Ip/2γc)c2r,

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