Abstract

We describe a reliable, high-power, and narrow-linewidth laser source at 399 nm, which is useful for cooling and trapping of ytterbium atoms. A continuous-wave titanium-sapphire laser at 798 nm is frequency doubled using a lithium triborate crystal in an enhancement cavity. Up to 1.0 W of light at 399 nm has been obtained from 1.3 W of infrared light, with an efficiency of 80%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. DeMille, “Parity nonconservation in the 6s21s0→6s5d3D1 transition in atomic ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165–4168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Fukuhara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, and Y. Takahashi, “Degenerate Fermi gases of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 030401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Hayes, P. S. Julienne, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic via the exchange blockade in ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 055401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Adams and A. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium tri-borate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kumagai, Y. Asakawa, T. Iwane, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Efficient frequency doubling of 1-W continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser with a robust high-finesse external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1036–1039 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. J. Koelemeij, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389  nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033104 (2005).
  12. M. Scheid, F. Markert, J. Walz, J. Wang, M. Kirchner, and T. W. Hänsch, “750  mW continuous-wave solid-state deep ultraviolet laser source at the 253.7  nm transition in mercury,” Opt. Lett. 32, 955–957 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-H. Cha, K.-H. Ko, G. Lim, J.-M. Han, H.-M. Park, T.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Jeong, “Generation of continuous-wave single-frequency 1.5  W 378  nm radiation by frequency doubling of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1666–1670 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Ferrari, J. Catani, L. Fallani, G. Giusfredi, G. Schettino, F. Schäfer, and P. Cancio Pastor, “Coherent addition of laser beams in resonant passive optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3105–3107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, “75% efficiency blue generation from an intracavity PPKTP frequency doubler,” Opt. Commun. 247, 471–481 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. P. Risk, T. R. Gosnell, and A. V. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge University, 2003).
  18. A. V. Smith, “SNLO nonlinear optics code,” 2009, http://www.as-photonics.com/SNLO .
  19. S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. S. Polzik and H. J. Kimble, “Frequency doubling with KNbO3 in an external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1400–1402 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, “On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 199, 435–446 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

2014 (1)

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2007 (3)

T. Fukuhara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, and Y. Takahashi, “Degenerate Fermi gases of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 030401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Hayes, P. S. Julienne, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic via the exchange blockade in ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheid, F. Markert, J. Walz, J. Wang, M. Kirchner, and T. W. Hänsch, “750  mW continuous-wave solid-state deep ultraviolet laser source at the 253.7  nm transition in mercury,” Opt. Lett. 32, 955–957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. C. J. Koelemeij, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389  nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033104 (2005).

R. L. Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, “75% efficiency blue generation from an intracavity PPKTP frequency doubler,” Opt. Commun. 247, 471–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Kumagai, Y. Asakawa, T. Iwane, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Efficient frequency doubling of 1-W continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser with a robust high-finesse external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1036–1039 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 055401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, “On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 199, 435–446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. DeMille, “Parity nonconservation in the 6s21s0→6s5d3D1 transition in atomic ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165–4168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Adams and A. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium tri-borate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik and H. J. Kimble, “Frequency doubling with KNbO3 in an external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1400–1402 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C.

C. Adams and A. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium tri-borate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, Y.

Beloy, K.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bregolin, F.

M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

Calonico, D.

M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

Cancio Pastor, P.

Cappellini, G.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Catani, J.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Ferrari, J. Catani, L. Fallani, G. Giusfredi, G. Schettino, F. Schäfer, and P. Cancio Pastor, “Coherent addition of laser beams in resonant passive optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3105–3107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cha, Y.-H.

Costanzo, G.

M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

Couillaud, B.

T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeMille, D.

D. DeMille, “Parity nonconservation in the 6s21s0→6s5d3D1 transition in atomic ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165–4168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, I. H.

D. Hayes, P. S. Julienne, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic via the exchange blockade in ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fallani, L.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Ferrari, J. Catani, L. Fallani, G. Giusfredi, G. Schettino, F. Schäfer, and P. Cancio Pastor, “Coherent addition of laser beams in resonant passive optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3105–3107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A.

C. Adams and A. Ferguson, “Tunable narrow linewidth ultra-violet light generation by frequency doubling of a ring Ti:sapphire laser using lithium tri-borate in an external enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 90, 89–94 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G.

Freegarde, T.

T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, “On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 199, 435–446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukuhara, T.

T. Fukuhara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, and Y. Takahashi, “Degenerate Fermi gases of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 030401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

Gosnell, T. R.

W. P. Risk, T. R. Gosnell, and A. V. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge University, 2003).

Han, J.-M.

Hänsch, T.

T. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hayes, D.

D. Hayes, P. S. Julienne, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic via the exchange blockade in ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, N.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

J. C. J. Koelemeij, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389  nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033104 (2005).

Honda, K.

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Iwane, T.

Jeong, D.-Y.

Julienne, P. S.

D. Hayes, P. S. Julienne, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic via the exchange blockade in ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-S.

Kimble, H. J.

Kirchner, M.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ko, K.-H.

Koelemeij, J. C. J.

J. C. J. Koelemeij, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389  nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033104 (2005).

Komori, K.

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

Kumakura, M.

T. Fukuhara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, and Y. Takahashi, “Degenerate Fermi gases of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 030401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuwamoto, T.

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

R. L. Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, “75% efficiency blue generation from an intracavity PPKTP frequency doubler,” Opt. Commun. 247, 471–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levi, F.

M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

Lim, G.

Liu, X.-J.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lombardi, P.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lorini, L.

M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

Ludlow, A. D.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maki, K.

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, M.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Markert, F.

Midorikawa, K.

Nurmikko, A. V.

W. P. Risk, T. R. Gosnell, and A. V. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge University, 2003).

Oates, C. W.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

Pagano, G.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 055401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-M.

Phillips, N. B.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pizzocaro, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Pizzocaro, F. Bregolin, D. Calonico, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, and L. Lorini, “Improved set-up for the ytterbium optical clock at INRIM,” in European Frequency and Time Forum International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFC) 2013 Joint (IEEE, 2013), pp. 379–382.

Polzik, E. S.

Risk, W. P.

W. P. Risk, T. R. Gosnell, and A. V. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge University, 2003).

Schafer, F.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, F.

Scheid, M.

Schettino, G.

Schioppo, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, J. A.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sias, C.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schafer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nat. Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

T. Fukuhara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, and Y. Takahashi, “Degenerate Fermi gases of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 030401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takano, T.

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takasu, Y.

T. Fukuhara, Y. Takasu, M. Kumakura, and Y. Takahashi, “Degenerate Fermi gases of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 030401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Targat, R. L.

R. L. Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, “75% efficiency blue generation from an intracavity PPKTP frequency doubler,” Opt. Commun. 247, 471–481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

J. C. J. Koelemeij, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389  nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033104 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 055401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, “On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 199, 435–446 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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R. L. Targat, J.-J. Zondy, and P. Lemonde, “75% efficiency blue generation from an intracavity PPKTP frequency doubler,” Opt. Commun. 247, 471–481 (2005).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. C. J. Koelemeij, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389  nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033104 (2005).

Science (1)

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block scheme of the SHG setup. FI, Faraday isolator; L, mode matching lens; M1–M4, cavity mirrors; NF, neutral density filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Drawing and picture of the cavity for the SHG of 399 nm with the LBO crystal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SHG power from the LBO crystal used in single pass at the output of the crystal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SHG power out of the cavity as a function of input power. Last two data points are obtained increasing the power of the Ti:sapphire pump above the normal value of 8.0 W. The dashed line shows the theoretical expectation from the measured values of Enl, lcav, T1, and η. Shaded region denotes uncertainty from the parameters.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power output of the SHG as a function of time. Inset shows a detail at short time scales.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum of ytterbium transition in a single sweep of the Ti:sapphire frequency. Isotope mass numbers (hyperfine transitions for odd isotopes) label each resonance.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Properties of LBO Crystal for SHG from 798 to 399  nm

Equations (3)

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Enl=16π2deff2lϵ0cλ13n3n1eαlhm(B,ξ),
Pc=T1Pin[1(1T1)(1lcav)(1EnlPc)]2,
Topt=lcav2+lcav24+EnlPin.

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