Abstract

Laser filters and color filters used in slit-lamp delivery have been developed by the rugate approach to improve color rendering of illumination for retinal photocoagulation. The double-notch laser filter is designed according to the required laser lines and incident angle. Based on the transmission spectrum of a double-notch laser filter and the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the light source of a slit lamp, a scanning search algorithm is applied to find the optimal transmission spectrum of a multi-notch color filter for the best color rendering index of illumination. Open-source software is used to design the refractive index profile of the rugate filters, which are deposited by the reactive pulse magnetron sputtering. Both the theoretical analysis of SPD of slitlamp delivery with consideration of the deposited rugate filters and the experimental results demonstrate that the color rendering property of illumination can be improved remarkably, thus making fundus observation and retinal laser photocoagulation more reliable and efficient.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2014

2013

2008

2006

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Pulse magnetron sputtering in a reactive gas mixture of variable composition to manufacture multilayer and gradient optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 502, 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. J. Tang, J. Y. Wu, “Rugate filter made with composite thin films by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1333–1337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1997

1993

1989

1987

M. M. Whitacre, “Noncontact retinal photocoagulation at the slit-lamp biomicroscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 290–293 (1987).

1954

G. Meyer-Schwinckerath, “Lichtkoagulationen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 156, 2–34 (1954).

Allan, S.

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bader, G.

Bartzsch, H.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Pulse magnetron sputtering in a reactive gas mixture of variable composition to manufacture multilayer and gradient optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 502, 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belousova, I. M.

Bovard, B. G.

Cheminot, C.

Chen, S.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cole, C.

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danilov, O. B.

Desforges, J.

Enaida, H.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Pulse magnetron sputtering in a reactive gas mixture of variable composition to manufacture multilayer and gradient optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 502, 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goedicke, K.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Pulse magnetron sputtering in a reactive gas mixture of variable composition to manufacture multilayer and gradient optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 502, 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hachisuka, Y.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. L.

Hendrix, K. D.

K. D. Hendrix, C. A. Hulse, G. J. Ockenfuss, R. B. Sargent, “Demonstration of narrowband notch and multi-notch filters,” Proc. SPIE 7067, 706702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herrington, B.

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hulse, C. A.

K. D. Hendrix, C. A. Hulse, G. J. Ockenfuss, R. B. Sargent, “Demonstration of narrowband notch and multi-notch filters,” Proc. SPIE 7067, 706702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, Y.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

Kadonosono, K.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kislyakov, I. M.

Lange, S.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Pulse magnetron sputtering in a reactive gas mixture of variable composition to manufacture multilayer and gradient optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 502, 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, S.

Laville, N.

Lee, C. C.

Lee, K. S.

Lingwood, D.

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ma, P.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mackrodt, K.

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Borreguero, G.

Martinu, L.

Matsui, T.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Schwinckerath, G.

G. Meyer-Schwinckerath, “Lichtkoagulationen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 156, 2–34 (1954).

Muranova, G. A.

Murav’eva, T. D.

Nakamura, K.

Nakao, S.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nakauchi, S.

Nishino, K.

Ockenfuss, G. J.

K. D. Hendrix, C. A. Hulse, G. J. Ockenfuss, R. B. Sargent, “Demonstration of narrowband notch and multi-notch filters,” Proc. SPIE 7067, 706702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, Y.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, P. J.

Pérez, Á. L.

Poitras, D.

Pu, Y.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Z.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhov, A. A.

Sargent, R. B.

K. D. Hendrix, C. A. Hulse, G. J. Ockenfuss, R. B. Sargent, “Demonstration of narrowband notch and multi-notch filters,” Proc. SPIE 7067, 706702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slim, T.

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Suero, M. I.

Sugiyama, J.

Tang, C. J.

Tsuta, M.

Vedenyapina, Z. B.

Videnichev, D. A.

Volynkin, V. M.

Wei, Y.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Whitacre, M. M.

M. M. Whitacre, “Noncontact retinal photocoagulation at the slit-lamp biomicroscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 290–293 (1987).

Wu, J. Y.

Yoshida, S.

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

Zhang, Z.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

M. M. Whitacre, “Noncontact retinal photocoagulation at the slit-lamp biomicroscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 290–293 (1987).

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol.

G. Meyer-Schwinckerath, “Lichtkoagulationen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 156, 2–34 (1954).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

H. Liu, S. Chen, P. Ma, Y. Pu, Z. Qiao, Z. Zhang, Y. Wei, Z. Liu, “Ion beams sputtering mixture films with tailored refractive indices,” Opt. Laser Technol. 55, 21–25 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Allan, B. Herrington, C. Cole, K. Mackrodt, T. Slim, D. Lingwood, “Rugate coatings for an avionics head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 5443, 130–137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Hendrix, C. A. Hulse, G. J. Ockenfuss, R. B. Sargent, “Demonstration of narrowband notch and multi-notch filters,” Proc. SPIE 7067, 706702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Retina

H. Enaida, Y. Ikeda, S. Yoshida, S. Nakao, Y. Hachisuka, K. Fujita, Y. Oshima, K. Kadonosono, T. Matsui, T. Ishibashi, “Clinical evaluation and reasibility of changing intraoperative visibility with a novel viewing filter system for human eye,” Retina 33, 1923–1930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, “Pulse magnetron sputtering in a reactive gas mixture of variable composition to manufacture multilayer and gradient optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 502, 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

Commission Internationale de l’éclairage, “Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources,” CIE publication 13.3 (1995).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of slit-lamp delivery. OL, ophthalmologic lens; SI, slit image; LF, laser filter; P, prism; CF, color filter; SM, stereomicroscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Design of double-notch laser filter. (a) Refractive index versus film thickness. (b) Simulated transmission spectrum at incident angle of 38°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Design of single-notch color filter. (a) Refractive index versus film thickness. (b) Simulated transmission spectrum at normal incident angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SPD P s ( λ ) of a slit lamp and the corresponding SPD P 0 ( λ ) of slit-lamp delivery with the designed double-notch laser filter and single-notch color filter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optimized transmission spectrum of multi-notch color filters at normal incident angle for CRI improvement

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dispersion curve of Si x O y N z films deposited with different O 2 content of reactive gas.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependency of the refractive index and deposition rate of Si x O y N z films on the O 2 content of reactive gas.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Deposition of a laser filter designed in Fig. 2. (a) Reactive gas flow versus film thickness. (b) Measured and simulated transmission spectrums at incident angle of 38°.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Re-optimized transmission spectrum of multi-notch color filter at normal incident angle for CRI improvement with measured transmission spectrum of laser filter.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Design and fabrication of double-notch color filter. (a) Refractive index versus film thickness and (b) optimized (black line), simulated (red line), and measured (blue line) transmission spectrums.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Predicted performance of slit-lamp delivery with the deposited laser filter and the deposited double-notch color filter. (a) SPD P s ( λ ) and P 0 ( λ ) ; (b) special CRI R i and general CRI R a .

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Design and fabrication of triple-notch color filter. (a) Refractive index versus film thickness; (b) optimized (black line), simulated (red line), and measured (blue line) transmission spectrums.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Predicted performance of slit-lamp delivery with the deposited laser filter and the deposited triple-notch color filter. (a) SPD P s ( λ ) and P 0 ( λ ) ; (b) special CRI R i and general CRI R a .

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Transmission spectrums of single-notch color filter designed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Experimental platform of fundus illumination. (a) Setup of slit-lamp delivery including ME, model eye; OL, ophthalmologic lens; LF, laser filter; P, prism; CF, color filter; SM, stereomicroscope; and CCD. The fundus image is obtained under illumination with (b) no filter module; (c) laser filter and single-notch color filter; (d) laser filter and double-notch color filter; (e) laser filter and triple-notch color filter.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specification of Filters Used in Slit Lamp Delivery

Tables Icon

Table 2. Characteristics of Color Filters and the Corresponding Performance of P 0 ( λ )

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparing between the Optimized and the Measured Double-Notch Color Filter

Tables Icon

Table 4. Comparing between the Optimized and the Measured Triple-Notch Color Filter

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 0 ( λ ) = P s ( λ ) T 1 ( λ ) 2 T 2 ( λ ) ,

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