Abstract

Ground settlement (GS) monitoring is a basic prerequisite in civil engineering. A commercialized instrument to meet this requirement has been available with millimeter accuracy. Major difficulties to improve this to micrometer scale, which are needed in special cases such as in high-speed railways, are challenged by the long stability of the sensor in the condition of the extremely slow settlement. A fiber-optic GS methodology was proposed by using a scanning low-coherent Michelson interferometer. One of the paths of the interferometer is formed by the liquid surface, and therefore the readout of the interferometer can make the measurement of the surface approach a micrometer scale. The liquid-contained chambers are hydraulically connected together at the bottom by using a water-filled tube. The liquid surface inside each chamber is at the same level initially. One of the chambers is located on stable ground or at a point that can be easily surveyed, too. The others are located at the points where settlement or heave is to be measured. Differential settlement, or heave, between the chambers will result in an apparent rise or fall of the liquid level, which biased the initial equal status. The experimental results demonstrated that the best accuracy of ±20μm for GS monitoring was obtained with a reference compensation sensor.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, S. S. Tan, J. H. Wo, J. J. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on dual-wavelength double-ring fiber laser assisted by beat frequency interrogation,” Opt. Express 20, 27367–27376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Lü and S. P. Yang, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot cavity optical fiber liquid-level sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3862–3867 (2007).

2005

2001

Y. Zhao and F. Ansari, “Quasi-distributed white light fiber optic strain sensor,” Opt. Commun. 196, 133–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, F.

Y. Zhao and F. Ansari, “Quasi-distributed white light fiber optic strain sensor,” Opt. Commun. 196, 133–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

Bourquin, F.

F. Bourquin and M. Joly, “A magnet-based vibrating wire sensor: design and simulation,” Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 247–256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, S. S. Tan, J. H. Wo, J. J. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on dual-wavelength double-ring fiber laser assisted by beat frequency interrogation,” Opt. Express 20, 27367–27376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Day, R. W.

R. W. Day, Foundation Engineering Handbook: Design and Construction with the 2006 International Building Code (McGraw-Hill, 2006).

Joly, M.

F. Bourquin and M. Joly, “A magnet-based vibrating wire sensor: design and simulation,” Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 247–256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. L.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Liu, D. M.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, S. S. Tan, J. H. Wo, J. J. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on dual-wavelength double-ring fiber laser assisted by beat frequency interrogation,” Opt. Express 20, 27367–27376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lü, T.

T. Lü and S. P. Yang, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot cavity optical fiber liquid-level sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3862–3867 (2007).

Mandolini, A.

A. Mandolini, G. Russo, and C. Viggiani, “Piled foundations: experimental investigations, analysis and design,” in Proceedings of XVIICSMGE (Millpress Science, 2005), pp. 177–213.

Ross, H. G.

H. G. Ross, “Float gauge with fixed liquid level gauge,” U.S. Patent, 6,497,145 B1 (24December, 2002).

Russo, G.

A. Mandolini, G. Russo, and C. Viggiani, “Piled foundations: experimental investigations, analysis and design,” in Proceedings of XVIICSMGE (Millpress Science, 2005), pp. 177–213.

Soltz, D. J.

D. J. Soltz, “Ultrasonic liquid level meter,” U.S. patent4,470,299 (11September1984).

Sun, C. S.

Sun, Q. Z.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, S. S. Tan, J. H. Wo, J. J. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on dual-wavelength double-ring fiber laser assisted by beat frequency interrogation,” Opt. Express 20, 27367–27376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. X.

Tan, S. S.

Viggiani, C.

A. Mandolini, G. Russo, and C. Viggiani, “Piled foundations: experimental investigations, analysis and design,” in Proceedings of XVIICSMGE (Millpress Science, 2005), pp. 177–213.

Wo, J. H.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, S. S. Tan, J. H. Wo, J. J. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on dual-wavelength double-ring fiber laser assisted by beat frequency interrogation,” Opt. Express 20, 27367–27376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

Yang, S. P.

T. Lü and S. P. Yang, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot cavity optical fiber liquid-level sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3862–3867 (2007).

Yu, L. C.

Yu, Q. X.

Zhang, J. J.

Zhang, M. L.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and F. Ansari, “Quasi-distributed white light fiber optic strain sensor,” Opt. Commun. 196, 133–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

Y. Zhao and F. Ansari, “Quasi-distributed white light fiber optic strain sensor,” Opt. Commun. 196, 133–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Dai, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, X. L. Li, M. L. Zhang, and D. M. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).

Opt. Express

Smart Mater. Struct.

F. Bourquin and M. Joly, “A magnet-based vibrating wire sensor: design and simulation,” Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 247–256 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

“High Sensitivity Settlement System | Model 4675,” http://www.geokon.com/high-sensitivity-settlement-system/

H. G. Ross, “Float gauge with fixed liquid level gauge,” U.S. Patent, 6,497,145 B1 (24December, 2002).

D. J. Soltz, “Ultrasonic liquid level meter,” U.S. patent4,470,299 (11September1984).

A. Mandolini, G. Russo, and C. Viggiani, “Piled foundations: experimental investigations, analysis and design,” in Proceedings of XVIICSMGE (Millpress Science, 2005), pp. 177–213.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

R. W. Day, Foundation Engineering Handbook: Design and Construction with the 2006 International Building Code (McGraw-Hill, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the SLMI configuration. SLED, super-luminescent emitting diode; PD, photoelectric detector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle for hydraulic connection of the GS sensor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calibration of the designed GS sensor. (a) Coarse calibration. (b) STD of the five times calibrations. (c) Fine calibration by using a standard thickness gauge (no. 172MC).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

GS sensor designed for application mimic. (a) Configuration of the optical system for the GS sensor. (b) Setup of the experimental test and the inner mechanical structure design of the GS sensor.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output of the three GS sensors.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

GS sensor part with reference compensation sensor.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

GS sensor output after subtraction with the reference compensation sensor.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(Q)=I(1)(Q)+I(2)(Q)+2I(1)(Q)I(2)(Q)γ12r(LABLCDc),
H+h2=D+h1,
HS1=D(S1+S2).
Δh=HS2/(S1+S2),
Hm=Δh(1+S1/S2),

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