Abstract

The current generation of advanced gravitational wave detectors utilize titania-doped tantala/silica multilayer stacks for their mirror coatings. The properties of the low-refractive-index silica are well known; however, in the absence of detailed direct measurements, the material parameters of Young’s modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the high refractive index material, titania-doped tantala, have been assumed to be equal to values measured for pure tantala coatings. In order to ascertain the true values necessary for thermal noise calculations, we have undertaken measurements of Young’s modulus and CTE through the use of nanoindentation and thermal-bending measurements. The measurements were designed to assess the effects of titania-doping concentration and post-deposition heat-treatment on the measured values in order to evaluate the possibility of optimizing material parameters to further improve thermal noise in the detector. Young’s modulus measurements on pure tantala and 25% and 55% titania-doped tantala show a wide range of values, from 132 to 177 GPa, which are dependent on both titania concentration and heat-treatment. Measurements of CTE give values of (3.9±0.1)×106K1 and (4.9±0.3)×106K1 for 25% and 55% titania-doped tantala, respectively, without dependence on post-deposition heat-treatment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. M. Harry (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. The Virgo Collaboration, “Advanced virgo baseline design,” https://tds.ego-gw.it/itf/tds/file.php?callFile=VIR-0027A-09.pdf (2009). Note VIR-027A–09.
  3. A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. N. Inci, “Simultaneous measurements of the thermal optical and linear thermal expansion coefficients of a thin film etalon from the reflection spectra of a super-luminescent diode,” J. Phys. D 37, 3151–3154 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. B. Braginsky and A. A. Samoylenko, “Measurements of the mirror optical coating properties,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 175–177 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Scobey and P. D. Stupik, “Stable ultranarrow bandpass filters,” Proc. SPIE 2262, 37–46 (1994).
  13. A. Chu, H. Lin, and W. Cheng, “Temperature dependence of refractive index of Ta2O5 Dielectric Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 889–892 (1997).
  14. P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.
  15. D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).
  16. I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).
  17. M. Gross, “CSIRO Report 1, Ion beam deposited coatings,” (2004), https://dcc.ligo.org/public/0027/T040236/000/T040236-00.pdf .
  18. E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).
  21. J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology,” J. Mater. Res. 19, 3–20 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Oliver and G. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Saha and W. Nix, “Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia 50, 23–38 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Fischer-Cripps, “Critical review of analysis and interpretation of nanoindentation test data,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 4153–4165 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Song, “Selected mechanical problems in load and depth sensing indentation testing,” Ph.D. thesis (Rice University, 1999).
  27. A. Rar, H. Song, and G. M. Pharr, “Assessment of new relation for the elastic compliance of a film-substrate system,” in MRS Online Proceedings Library (2001), Vol. 695, p. L10.10.1.
  28. H. Gao, C.-H. Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471–2492 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Hay and B. Crawford, “Measuring substrate-independent modulus of thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 727–738 (2011).
  30. M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 82, 172–175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. W. Hoffman, “The mechanical properties of thin condensed films,” in Physics of Thin Films (Academic, 1966), Vol. 3.
  34. M. F. Doerner and W. D. Nix, “Stresses and deformation processes in thin films on substrates,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 14, 225–268 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. T. Brown, “Center wavelength shift dependence on substrate coefficient of thermal expansion for optical thin-film interference filters deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4506–4511 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).
  37. K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).
  38. J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Hay and B. Crawford, “Measuring substrate-independent modulus of thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 727–738 (2011).

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

G. M. Harry (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

2009 (3)

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

2007 (1)

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fischer-Cripps, “Critical review of analysis and interpretation of nanoindentation test data,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 4153–4165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).

2004 (6)

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Brown, “Center wavelength shift dependence on substrate coefficient of thermal expansion for optical thin-film interference filters deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4506–4511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology,” J. Mater. Res. 19, 3–20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. N. Inci, “Simultaneous measurements of the thermal optical and linear thermal expansion coefficients of a thin film etalon from the reflection spectra of a super-luminescent diode,” J. Phys. D 37, 3151–3154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky and A. A. Samoylenko, “Measurements of the mirror optical coating properties,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 175–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Saha and W. Nix, “Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia 50, 23–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Chu, H. Lin, and W. Cheng, “Temperature dependence of refractive index of Ta2O5 Dielectric Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 889–892 (1997).

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. A. Scobey and P. D. Stupik, “Stable ultranarrow bandpass filters,” Proc. SPIE 2262, 37–46 (1994).

1992 (2)

W. Oliver and G. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, C.-H. Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471–2492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. F. Doerner and W. D. Nix, “Stresses and deformation processes in thin films on substrates,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 14, 225–268 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, M. R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Armandula, H.

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ballmer, S.

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baloukas, B.

Bassiri, R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becerra-Toledo, A. E.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bendavid, A.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Betzwieser, J. C.

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Black, E.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Black, E. D.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blacker, R.

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky and A. A. Samoylenko, “Measurements of the mirror optical coating properties,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 175–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. T.

Cagnoli, G.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camp, J.

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Çetinörgü, E.

Chalkley, E.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

A. Chu, H. Lin, and W. Cheng, “Temperature dependence of refractive index of Ta2O5 Dielectric Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 889–892 (1997).

Chiu, C.-H.

H. Gao, C.-H. Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471–2492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

A. Chu, H. Lin, and W. Cheng, “Temperature dependence of refractive index of Ta2O5 Dielectric Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 889–892 (1997).

Chuang, K.-P.

C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comtet, C.

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Court, N.

Crawford, B.

J. Hay and B. Crawford, “Measuring substrate-independent modulus of thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 727–738 (2011).

Crooks, D.

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crooks, D. R. M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dligatch, S.

Doerner, M. F.

M. F. Doerner and W. D. Nix, “Stresses and deformation processes in thin films on substrates,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 14, 225–268 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, K.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drage, D.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Eichenfield, M.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M.

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer-Cripps, A.

A. Fischer-Cripps, “Critical review of analysis and interpretation of nanoindentation test data,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 4153–4165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaillard, Y.

Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).

Galdi, V.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ganau, P.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, C.-H. Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471–2492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

González-Elipe, A. R.

Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).

Gretarsson, A.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gretarsson, A. M.

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Gustafson, E.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

Harry, G.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hay, J.

J. Hay and B. Crawford, “Measuring substrate-independent modulus of thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 727–738 (2011).

Heinert, D.

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, R. W.

R. W. Hoffman, “The mechanical properties of thin condensed films,” in Physics of Thin Films (Academic, 1966), Vol. 3.

Hough, J.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

How, C. R.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inci, M. N.

M. N. Inci, “Simultaneous measurements of the thermal optical and linear thermal expansion coefficients of a thin film etalon from the reflection spectra of a super-luminescent diode,” J. Phys. D 37, 3151–3154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C.-C.

C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez-Pique, E.

Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).

Kinder, T.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Kittelberger, S. E.

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

Klinger, R.

Kurosaki, K.

K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).

Lee, C.-C.

C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

H. Gao, C.-H. Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471–2492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Libbrecht, K. G.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

A. Chu, H. Lin, and W. Cheng, “Temperature dependence of refractive index of Ta2O5 Dielectric Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 889–892 (1997).

Mackowski, J.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mackowski, J. M.

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

MacLaren, I.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Markosyan, A.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin, I.

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Martin, I. W.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Martin, P. J.

Martinu, L.

Matsunaga, J.

K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).

McEldowney, S.

Mencík, J.

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michel, C.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montorio, J.-L.

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Morgado, N.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Morton, D.

Mortonson, M. J.

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munz, D.

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murray, P.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, N.

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nawrodt, R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Netterfield, R.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Netterfield, R. P.

Nix, W.

R. Saha and W. Nix, “Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia 50, 23–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nix, W. D.

M. F. Doerner and W. D. Nix, “Stresses and deformation processes in thin films on substrates,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 14, 225–268 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nwabugwu, C.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oberste-Berghaus, J.

Ogin, G.

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, W.

W. Oliver and G. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, W. C.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology,” J. Mater. Res. 19, 3–20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S. D.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G.

W. Oliver and G. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology,” J. Mater. Res. 19, 3–20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rar, H. Song, and G. M. Pharr, “Assessment of new relation for the elastic compliance of a film-substrate system,” in MRS Online Proceedings Library (2001), Vol. 695, p. L10.10.1.

Pierro, V.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, L.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, I. M.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Principe, M.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quandt, E.

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rar, A.

A. Rar, H. Song, and G. M. Pharr, “Assessment of new relation for the elastic compliance of a film-substrate system,” in MRS Online Proceedings Library (2001), Vol. 695, p. L10.10.1.

Reid, S.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remillieux, A.

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rico, V. J.

Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).

Route, R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, S.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sadkhin, G.

Saha, R.

R. Saha and W. Nix, “Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia 50, 23–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Samoylenko, A. A.

V. B. Braginsky and A. A. Samoylenko, “Measurements of the mirror optical coating properties,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 175–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saulson, P. R.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, C.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Scobey, M. A.

M. A. Scobey and P. D. Stupik, “Stable ultranarrow bandpass filters,” Proc. SPIE 2262, 37–46 (1994).

Scott, J.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

Seidel, P.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Setoyama, D.

K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).

Sneddon, P.

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sneddon, P. H.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

A. Rar, H. Song, and G. M. Pharr, “Assessment of new relation for the elastic compliance of a film-substrate system,” in MRS Online Proceedings Library (2001), Vol. 695, p. L10.10.1.

H. Song, “Selected mechanical problems in load and depth sensing indentation testing,” Ph.D. thesis (Rice University, 1999).

Startin, W. J.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, I.

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Stupik, P. D.

M. A. Scobey and P. D. Stupik, “Stable ultranarrow bandpass filters,” Proc. SPIE 2262, 37–46 (1994).

Swain, M.

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

Taurasi, I.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C.-L.

C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vassiliou, C. C.

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villar, A.

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villar, A. E.

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vodel, W.

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Vyatchanin, S.

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weppelmann, E.

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodcraft, A. L.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, S.

K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).

Zabeida, O.

Zappe, S.

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, A.

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Acta Materialia (1)

R. Saha and W. Nix, “Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia 50, 23–38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Class. Quantum Grav. (9)

G. M. Harry, M. R. Abernathy, A. E. Becerra-Toledo, H. Armandula, E. Black, K. Dooley, M. Eichenfield, C. Nwabugwu, A. Villar, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, C. R. How, I. MacLaren, P. Murray, S. Reid, S. Rowan, P. H. Sneddon, M. M. Fejer, R. Route, S. D. Penn, P. Ganau, J. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, “Titania-doped tantala/silica coatings for gravitational-wave detection,” Class. Quantum Grav. 24, 405–415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft , “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 225020 (2010).

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat-treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 195017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 19, 897–917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Penn, P. H. Sneddon, H. Armandula, J. C. Betzwieser, G. Cagnoli, J. Camp, D. R. M. Crooks, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, S. E. Kittelberger, M. J. Mortonson, R. Route, S. Rowan, and C. C. Vassiliou, “Mechanical loss in tantala/silica dielectric mirror coatings,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, 2917–2928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Martin, E. Chalkley, R. Nawrodt, H. Armandula, R. Bassiri, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, D. Heinert, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation in thin films of Ta2O5 and Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 26, 155012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, N. Nakagawa, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. H. Sneddon, “Experimental measurements of coating mechanical loss factors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S1059–S1065 (2004).

I. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurements of a low-temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Grav. 25, 055005 (2008).

Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences (1)

M. F. Doerner and W. D. Nix, “Stresses and deformation processes in thin films on substrates,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 14, 225–268 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Solids Struct. (1)

H. Gao, C.-H. Chiu, and J. Lee, “Elastic contact versus indentation modeling of multi-layered materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471–2492 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

K. Kurosaki, D. Setoyama, J. Matsunaga, and S. Yamanaka, “Nanoindentation tests for TiO2, MgO, and YSZ single crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 386, 261–264 (2005).

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

A. Chu, H. Lin, and W. Cheng, “Temperature dependence of refractive index of Ta2O5 Dielectric Films,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 889–892 (1997).

J. Mater. Res. (4)

J. Hay and B. Crawford, “Measuring substrate-independent modulus of thin films,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 727–738 (2011).

J. Menčík, D. Munz, E. Quandt, E. Weppelmann, and M. Swain, “Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475–2484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: advances in understanding and refinements to methodology,” J. Mater. Res. 19, 3–20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Oliver and G. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C.-L. Tien, C.-C. Lee, K.-P. Chuang, and C.-C. Jaing, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of ta2o5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (2)

M. N. Inci, “Simultaneous measurements of the thermal optical and linear thermal expansion coefficients of a thin film etalon from the reflection spectra of a super-luminescent diode,” J. Phys. D 37, 3151–3154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gaillard, V. J. Rico, E. Jimenez-Pique, and A. R. González-Elipe, “Nanoindentation of TiO2 thin films with different microstructures,” J. Phys. D 42, 145305 (2009).

Phys. Lett. A (2)

S. Reid, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, J. Hough, P. Murray, S. Rowan, M. Fejer, R. Route, and S. Zappe, “Mechanical dissipation in silicon flexures,” Phys. Lett. A 351, 205–211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky and A. A. Samoylenko, “Measurements of the mirror optical coating properties,” Phys. Lett. A 315, 175–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (3)

M. Fejer, S. Rowan, G. Cagnoli, D. Crooks, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, S. Penn, P. Sneddon, and S. Vyatchanin, “Thermoelastic dissipation in inhomogeneous media: loss measurements and displacement noise in coated test masses for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 70, 082003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Villar, E. D. Black, R. DeSalvo, K. G. Libbrecht, C. Michel, N. Morgado, L. Pinard, I. M. Pinto, V. Pierro, V. Galdi, M. Principe, and I. Taurasi, “Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Evans, S. Ballmer, M. Fejer, P. Fritschel, G. Harry, and G. Ogin, “Thermo-optic noise in coated mirrors for high-precision optical measurements,” Phys. Rev. D 78, 102003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. London A (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. A. Scobey and P. D. Stupik, “Stable ultranarrow bandpass filters,” Proc. SPIE 2262, 37–46 (1994).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

A. Fischer-Cripps, “Critical review of analysis and interpretation of nanoindentation test data,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 4153–4165 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Song, “Selected mechanical problems in load and depth sensing indentation testing,” Ph.D. thesis (Rice University, 1999).

A. Rar, H. Song, and G. M. Pharr, “Assessment of new relation for the elastic compliance of a film-substrate system,” in MRS Online Proceedings Library (2001), Vol. 695, p. L10.10.1.

R. W. Hoffman, “The mechanical properties of thin condensed films,” in Physics of Thin Films (Academic, 1966), Vol. 3.

P. Martin, A. Bendavid, M. Swain, R. Netterfield, T. Kinder, W. Sainty, and D. Drage, “Mechanical and optical properties of thin films of tantalum oxide deposited by ion-assisted deposition,” in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (1993), Vol. 306, p. 583.

M. Gross, “CSIRO Report 1, Ion beam deposited coatings,” (2004), https://dcc.ligo.org/public/0027/T040236/000/T040236-00.pdf .

The Virgo Collaboration, “Advanced virgo baseline design,” https://tds.ego-gw.it/itf/tds/file.php?callFile=VIR-0027A-09.pdf (2009). Note VIR-027A–09.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of the load-displacement curves used in calculating the Young’s modulus at one position on a film of pure tantala deposited on a silica substrate and heat-treated to 600°C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of the fit of Eq. (5) to indentation data. Red circles are the values of E1 from the Oliver and Pharr analysis against I0; blue line is the fit of the Song and Pharr model to the data; green dashed lines show the one standard deviation uncertainties to the fit. These data are from one position on the pure tantala sample heat-treated to 400°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diagram of the thermal-bending experimental setup. The measurement of the spot separation, D, is dependent upon the displacement of the cantilever tip, y. This diagram is not to scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of tensile stress (blue circles) versus temperature with accompanying fitted line (red). The slope of this line is used to calculate the thermal expansion coefficient of the coating material.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mean Young’s moduli of all tantala samples measured on silica substrates, plotted for samples of different heat-treatment. The red circles are pure tantala, the green squares are 25% titania-doped tantala, and the black triangles are 55% titania-doped tantala. Error bars are the statistical uncertainty on the weighted mean. The sample heat-treated at 800°C was found to be polycrystalline; all others are amorphous.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coefficient of thermal expansion measured using the thermal-bending technique for 55% (green circles) and 25% (red squares) titania-doped tantala samples heat-treated at different temperatures. The solid lines indicate the weighted mean of each set.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Young’s Moduli Measured for Various Titania-Doped Tantala Filmsa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E*=π2dPdh1A,
1E*=1νi2Ei+1νs2Es.
P=α(hhf)m,
A(hc)=C1hc2+C2hc+C2hc1/2+C4hc1/4+,
1E=1Es+(1Ec1Es)I0(t/a).
I0(t/a)=2πarctan(t/a)+12π(1ν)[(12ν)(t/a)ln(1+(t/a)2(t/a)2)t/a1+(t/a)2],
σcoating=16Bsts2tc(1R01R),
σcoating=σI+(αcαs)BcΔT,
dσcoating/dT=(αsαc)Bc.
R=2Lx/δ.

Metrics