Abstract

An improved algorithm based on a fiber loop optical structure is proposed for measurement of water vapor concentration. Compared with the traditional algorithm, the intrinsic loss of optical devices in the loop is no longer necessary to be accurately measured but instead is directly eliminated by normalization. The concentration of the analyte can be determined by only two pulses without the need for exponential curve fitting, which leads to a significant reduction in the amount of data required to make a measurement. The restriction on the inherent loss of the fiber loop system also can be eased. In addition, a background absorption problem caused by the water vapor existing inside internal end-face gaps of optical components is solved. The mean absolute error of 29 parts per million by volume has been achieved with a 6.5 cm gas gap by using the new algorithm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Yu, C. Wu, and Z. Wang, “Optical methane sensor based on a fiber loop at 1665  nm,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 728–731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, T. K. Chuah, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Enhancing the measurement accuracy of a cavity-enhanced fiber chemical sensor by an adaptive filter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 115203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Crosson, “A cavity ringdown analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 403–408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapor transitions near 1388 and 1345  nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1185–1194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Irawan, G. B. Scelsi, and G. A. Woolsey, “Optical sensor for monitoring SF6 dissociation in high-voltage switchgear,” Proc. SPIE 4074, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe and D. Deacon, “Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aiuppa, A.

L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. A.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bescherer, K.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. S.

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, K. L.

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, T. K. Chuah, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Enhancing the measurement accuracy of a cavity-enhanced fiber chemical sensor by an adaptive filter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 115203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhu, J. Chang, P. Wang, W. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Lv, X. Liu, W. Wei, F. Wang, and S. Zhang, “Reliability analysis and comparison of demodulation methods for dual-beam wavelength-modulation spectroscopy water vapor detection,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4171–4178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chuah, T. K.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, T. K. Chuah, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Enhancing the measurement accuracy of a cavity-enhanced fiber chemical sensor by an adaptive filter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 115203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ciciora, S. J.

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crosson, E. R.

E. R. Crosson, “A cavity ringdown analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 403–408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. J.

Deacon, D.

A. O’Keefe and D. Deacon, “Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dias, S.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
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Ebert, V.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
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R. Irawan, G. B. Scelsi, and G. A. Woolsey, “Optical sensor for monitoring SF6 dissociation in high-voltage switchgear,” Proc. SPIE 4074, 175–183 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapor transitions near 1388 and 1345  nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1185–1194 (2007).
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H. J. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1052–1061 (2006).
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Khan, M. A.

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Li, H. J.

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Liu, X. Z.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
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Loock, H.-P.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Otis, C. E.

Palombo, D. A.

Palucci, A.

L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poreh, D.

L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rascher, U.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, G. B.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scelsi, G. B.

R. Irawan, G. B. Scelsi, and G. A. Woolsey, “Optical sensor for monitoring SF6 dissociation in high-voltage switchgear,” Proc. SPIE 4074, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schurr, U.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, T. K. Chuah, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Enhancing the measurement accuracy of a cavity-enhanced fiber chemical sensor by an adaptive filter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 115203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stark, H.

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B. N.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tao, L.

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trefiak, N. R.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwer, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waechter, H.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, H. B.

H. B. Wang, “Study on the gas concentration measurement based on the optical fiber cavity ringdown method,” PhD thesis (Yanshan University, 2010).

Wang, P.

Wang, P. P.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhu, J. Chang, P. Wang, W. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Lv, X. Liu, W. Wei, F. Wang, and S. Zhang, “Reliability analysis and comparison of demodulation methods for dual-beam wavelength-modulation spectroscopy water vapor detection,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4171–4178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Wang, Z.

K. Yu, C. Wu, and Z. Wang, “Optical methane sensor based on a fiber loop at 1665  nm,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 728–731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

Webber, M. E.

M. E. Webber, “Diode laser measurements of NH3 and CO2 for combustion and bioreactor applications,” PhD thesis (Stanford University, 2001).

Wei, W.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhu, J. Chang, P. Wang, W. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Lv, X. Liu, W. Wei, F. Wang, and S. Zhang, “Reliability analysis and comparison of demodulation methods for dual-beam wavelength-modulation spectroscopy water vapor detection,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4171–4178 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Woolsey, G. A.

R. Irawan, G. B. Scelsi, and G. A. Woolsey, “Optical sensor for monitoring SF6 dissociation in high-voltage switchgear,” Proc. SPIE 4074, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

K. Yu, C. Wu, and Z. Wang, “Optical methane sensor based on a fiber loop at 1665  nm,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 728–731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wunderle, K.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, L.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, T. K. Chuah, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Enhancing the measurement accuracy of a cavity-enhanced fiber chemical sensor by an adaptive filter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 115203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yam, S.

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

K. Yu, C. Wu, and Z. Wang, “Optical methane sensor based on a fiber loop at 1665  nm,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 728–731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. S.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhu, C.

Zhu, C. G.

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zondlo, M. A.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37  μm,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Crosson, “A cavity ringdown analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 403–408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Bescherer, J. A. Barnes, S. Dias, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, N. R. Trefiak, H. Waechter, and S. Yam, “Measurement of multi-exponential optical decay processes by phase-shift cavity ringdown,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 193–200 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

K. Yu, C. Wu, and Z. Wang, “Optical methane sensor based on a fiber loop at 1665  nm,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 728–731 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Zhu, J. Chang, P. P. Wang, B. N. Sun, Q. Wang, W. Wei, X. Z. Liu, and S. S. Zhang, “Improvement of measurement accuracy of infrared moisture meter by considering the impact of moisture inside optical components,” IEEE Sens. J. 14, 920–925 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwer, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapor transitions near 1388 and 1345  nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1185–1194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 012004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, T. K. Chuah, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Enhancing the measurement accuracy of a cavity-enhanced fiber chemical sensor by an adaptive filter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 115203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Fiorani, F. Colao, A. Palucci, D. Poreh, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice, “First-time lidar measurement of water vapor flux in a volcanic plume,” Opt. Commun. 284, 1295–1298 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Irawan, G. B. Scelsi, and G. A. Woolsey, “Optical sensor for monitoring SF6 dissociation in high-voltage switchgear,” Proc. SPIE 4074, 175–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. O’Keefe and D. Deacon, “Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. E. Webber, “Diode laser measurements of NH3 and CO2 for combustion and bioreactor applications,” PhD thesis (Stanford University, 2001).

IEEE Std 1125-1993 IEEE Guide for Moisture Measurement and Control in SF6 Gas-insulated Equipment[S].

H. B. Wang, “Study on the gas concentration measurement based on the optical fiber cavity ringdown method,” PhD thesis (Yanshan University, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of fiber loop detection system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Decaying pulse train and fitted curve.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dual-beam differential optical structure. (b) Measured absorption profile of water at the wavelength of 1368.597 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the fiber loop experimental system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Decaying pulse train acquired in experiment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectroscopic Parameters and Experiment Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Test Results and Parameters of Different Samples

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(υ)=I0(υ)exp[β(υ)CL],
β(υ)=1013250×S(T)g(υ)P/kT,
g(υ)=1πΔυc/2(υυ0)2+(Δυc/2)2,
tet=10logeΓ,
αgas=Γαfibαcplαcol,
αgas=10logI(υ)I0(υ).
fcoeff=Iref0Iprob0,
Iref1Iref0=exp[β(υ)C1L1β1],
Iprob1Iprob0=exp[β(υ)C1L1β1],
fcoeff=Iref1Iprob1.
Iref2Iref0=exp[β(υ)C0Lβ(υ)C1L1β2],
β2=ln{Iref2exp[β(υ)C1L1+β(υ)C0L]/Iref0},
Iprob2Iprob0=exp[β(υ)CLβ(υ)C1L1β2].
C=C0ln(Iprob2fcoeff/Iref2)/β(υ)L.
C=C0ln(Iprob3fcoeff/Iref3)/β(υ)2L.
δI=I(υ)I0(υ)I0(υ).
δI=exp[β(υ)CL]1.
ex=1+x+12!x2++1n!xn+,x(,+).
δIβ(υ)CL.

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