Abstract

The effects of different pitch and angle of gradual-triangle lenticular lens for the point-blank LED fog lamp were investigated under the standard of ECE R19. The novel LED fog lamp was assembled from a point-blank LED light source, a parabolic reflector, and a gradual-triangle lenticular lens. Light tracing analysis was used for the design of the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The pitch, which varied from 1 to 6 mm, and the apex angle, which changed from 5 to 32 deg, were both investigated in regard to the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The optimum pitch was 5 mm, and the efficiency of the lamp system and lenticular lens could reach 93% and 98.1% by simulation, respectively. The results of experiment had over 94%, which is similar to that of simulation by normalized cross correlation (NCC) for the light intensity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28–37 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2013 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. C. Chen and G. Y. Wu, “Investigation of irradiance efficiency for LED phototherapy with different arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4882–4886 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18, 9055–9063 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15, 3607–3618 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, B. Rong, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Evaluation of LED application in general lighting,” Opt. Eng. 46, 074002 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28–37 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Ries, I. Leike, and J. Muschaweck, “Mixing colored LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 5186, 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alejo, M. A.

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cassarly, R. W. J.

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cen, S. Y.

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. Y. Chiu, “Rectangular illumination using a secondary optics with cylindrical lens for LED street light,” Opt. Express 21, 3201–3212 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. C. Chen and G. Y. Wu, “Investigation of irradiance efficiency for LED phototherapy with different arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4882–4886 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheung, B.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H. Y.

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Contreras, U.

Davenport, T. L.

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

David, S. R.

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

Fischer, R. E.

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE, 2008).

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. M.

Jenkins, D. G.

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. Z.

Lee, T. X.

Lee, W. B.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. L.

Leike, I.

H. Ries, I. Leike, and J. Muschaweck, “Mixing colored LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 5186, 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Liang, T.

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. Y. Chiu, “Rectangular illumination using a secondary optics with cylindrical lens for LED street light,” Opt. Express 21, 3201–3212 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q. M.

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, B. Rong, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Evaluation of LED application in general lighting,” Opt. Eng. 46, 074002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. X.

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, “Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays,” Opt. Express 15, 3607–3618 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2265–2272 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Muschaweck, J.

H. Ries, I. Leike, and J. Muschaweck, “Mixing colored LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 5186, 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Muthu, S.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pashley, M. D.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ries, H.

H. Ries, I. Leike, and J. Muschaweck, “Mixing colored LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 5186, 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Riser, A. P.

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rong, B.

M. Liu, B. Rong, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Evaluation of LED application in general lighting,” Opt. Eng. 46, 074002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Salemink, H. W. M.

M. Liu, B. Rong, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Evaluation of LED application in general lighting,” Opt. Eng. 46, 074002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E.

E. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2003).

Schuurmans, F. J. P.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shen, G.

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

Sun, L.

Tadic-Galeb, B.

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE, 2008).

To, S.

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28–37 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tzonchev, R. I.

Wu, G. Y.

H. C. Chen and G. Y. Wu, “Investigation of irradiance efficiency for LED phototherapy with different arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4882–4886 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. H.

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoder, P. R.

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE, 2008).

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zukauskas, A.

A. Zukauskas, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. (1)

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 28–37 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Microelectron. (1)

L. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Liang, X. Gu, Q. M. Lin, and G. Shen, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of tri-chromatic and tetra-chromatic LED-based white LEDs,” J. Microelectron. 38, 1–6 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. C. Chen and G. Y. Wu, “Investigation of irradiance efficiency for LED phototherapy with different arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4882–4886 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

I. Moreno, M. A. Alejo, R. W. J. Cassarly, S. R. David, D. G. Jenkins, A. P. Riser, and T. L. Davenport, “Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1830–1839 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, B. Rong, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Evaluation of LED application in general lighting,” Opt. Eng. 46, 074002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung, “Optical design of a freeform TIR lens for LED streetlight,” Optik 122, 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, C. H. Yang, and Y. X. Lu, “Effects of radiation characteristic and luminous efficiency for LED lampshade with cylindrical lens,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778411 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Ries, I. Leike, and J. Muschaweck, “Mixing colored LED sources,” Proc. SPIE 5186, 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. Zukauskas, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

E. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2003).

UNECE, “Uniform provisions concerning the approval of power-driven vehicle front fog lamps,” ECE, 2December2013.

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, Optical System Design (SPIE, 2008).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical design for HID and LED lamp for the multireflector fog lamp.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mockup of (a) the point-blank LED fog lamp, (b) gradual-triangle lenticular lens, and (c) 3-D decomposed drawings of the point-blank LED fog lamp.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) LED fog lamp focusing on a measured screen. (b) Apex angle of the triangular lenticular lens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Light tracing of a gradual-triangle lenticular lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light tracing of light source and gradual-triangle lenticular lens at 25 m measured screen.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Design and simulation flow of point-blank LED fog lamp.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relationship of apex angle α and divergence angles β with different shift angle θ2.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Rectangular iso-candela plot in pitch of (a) 1 mm, (b) 3 mm, and (c) 5 mm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Luminous efficiency of (a) lamp system and (b) gradual-triangle lenticular lens with different pitch and reflectivity rate of reflector.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Rectangular iso-candela plot at pitch of (a) 1 mm, (b) 3 mm, and (c) 5 mm by chamfer of 0.25 mm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Luminous efficiency of (a) lamp system and (b) gradual-triangle lenticular lens with different pitch and reflectivity rate of reflector by chamfer of 0.25 mm.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Illumination pattern for (a) simulation and (b) experiment at pitch of 3 mm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Illumination pattern for (a) simulation and (b) experiment at pitch of 5 mm.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Similarity of the experiment and simulation in (a) horizontal axis (x axis) and (b) vertical axis (y axis) for pitch of 3 mm.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Similarity of experiment and simulation in (a) horizontal axis (x axis) and (b) vertical axis (y axis) for pitch of 5 mm.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Simulation and experiment of luminous efficiency of (a) lamp system and (b) asymmetric lenticular lens with different pitch and reflectivity rate.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison List of Tungsten, HID, and Point-Blank LED Fog Lamp

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of the Regulation ECE R19 and Simulated Results

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ1=sin1(n1sinθ1n2).
θ1+β=90°.
β+β=90°α.
θ1=α+β.
θ1=sin1(n1sin(α+β)n2).
θ2=sin1(n2sinθ2n1).
θ1+θ2+α=180°.
α+α=180°.
θ2=αθ1.
θ2=sin1(n2sin(αθ1)n1).
β=tan1[(2a1)hm(2ll)].
l=htanα.
β=tan1[(2a1)hm(2lhtanα)].
θ2=sin1(n2sin(αsin1(sin(α+tan1((2a1)hm(2lhtanα)))n2))).
θ2=tan1((L+t)tanθr+((2a1)h2m)L+t).
θ2=tan1(Ltanθr+((2a1)h2m)L).
tan1(((2a1)h2m)L)<θ2<tan1(Ltanθr+((2a1)h2m)L).
1.5<θ2<3.55
sin(α+β)=1.586×sin1(αsin1(sinθ21.586)).
α=tan1(sinθ2+sinβcosβ1.586×cos(sin1(sinθ21.586))).
Z=cr21+1(1+k)c2r2+air2i,
Esys=LlampLsource,
Elens=LlampLsource+reflector,
NCC=mn(XmnX¯)(YmnY¯)[mn(XmnX¯)2][mn(YmnY¯)2],

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