Abstract

In this paper, we present measurements of angle- and wavelength-resolved diffuse scattering of EUV radiation on a Mo/Si multilayer. Our sample is optimized for high reflectivity at 13.5 nm wavelength near-normal incidence. We present a rigorous theoretical analysis of the off-specular EUV scattering on the basis of the distorted-wave Born approximation. We prove that the determination of the interface roughness power spectral density (PSD) is only possible by considering geometry-dependent and dynamic contributions. The scattering from multilayer mirrors leads to an intrinsic enhancement in off-specular intensity independent of roughness properties. The thickness oscillations in the scattering intensity (Kiessig fringes) are found to cause additional dynamic enhancement in analogy to Bragg-like peaks for grazing incidence geometry. Considering these effects, the interface PSD is consistently determined.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  12. F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, and W. W. van den Hoogenhof, “Influence of roughness profile on reflectivity and angle-dependent x-ray fluorescence,” J. Phys. III 4, 1559–1564 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Kiessig, “Interferenz von Röntgenstrahlen an dünnen Schichten,” Ann. Phys. 402, 769–788 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. M. Kaganer, S. A. Stepanov, and R. Köhler, “Bragg diffraction peaks in x-ray diffuse scattering from multilayers with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 16369–16372 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Palasantzas and J. Krim, “Effect of the form of the height–height correlation function on diffuse x-ray scattering from a self-affine surface,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2873–2877 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Engin. 83, 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. K. G. de Boer, “X-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence from materials with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 6048–6064 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. K. G. de Boer, “X-ray reflection and transmission by rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5297–5305 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Kaganer, S. A. Stepanov, and R. Köhler, “Bragg diffraction peaks in x-ray diffuse scattering from multilayers with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 16369–16372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, and W. W. van den Hoogenhof, “Influence of roughness profile on reflectivity and angle-dependent x-ray fluorescence,” J. Phys. III 4, 1559–1564 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. I. tools of investigation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 197–210 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

C. Amra, C. Grèzes-Besset, and L. Bruel, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5492–5503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Palasantzas and J. Krim, “Effect of the form of the height–height correlation function on diffuse x-ray scattering from a self-affine surface,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2873–2877 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297–2311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

1976 (1)

P. Croce and L. Névot, “étude des couches minces et des surfaces par réflexion rasante, spéculaire ou diffuse, de rayons x,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 11, 113–125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. Kiessig, “Interferenz von Röntgenstrahlen an dünnen Schichten,” Ann. Phys. 402, 769–788 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

Baumbach, T.

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beckhoff, B.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Benoit, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Engin. 83, 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

Blume, H.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 1965).

Brandt, G.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, S.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bruel, L.

Cheng, X.

Chitu, L.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

P. Croce and L. Névot, “étude des couches minces et des surfaces par réflexion rasante, spéculaire ou diffuse, de rayons x,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 11, 113–125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D. K. G.

D. K. G. de Boer, “X-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence from materials with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 6048–6064 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. K. G. de Boer, “X-ray reflection and transmission by rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5297–5305 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, and W. W. van den Hoogenhof, “Influence of roughness profile on reflectivity and angle-dependent x-ray fluorescence,” J. Phys. III 4, 1559–1564 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Eden, J.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Engin. 83, 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fliegauf, R.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garoff, S.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297–2311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, A.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grèzes-Besset, C.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herffurth, T.

Hinze, P.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Høghøj, P.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holý, V.

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jergel, M.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaganer, V. M.

V. M. Kaganer, S. A. Stepanov, and R. Köhler, “Bragg diffraction peaks in x-ray diffuse scattering from multilayers with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 16369–16372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Engin. 83, 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keckes, J.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiessig, H.

H. Kiessig, “Interferenz von Röntgenstrahlen an dünnen Schichten,” Ann. Phys. 402, 769–788 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

V. M. Kaganer, S. A. Stepanov, and R. Köhler, “Bragg diffraction peaks in x-ray diffuse scattering from multilayers with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 16369–16372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krim, J.

G. Palasantzas and J. Krim, “Effect of the form of the height–height correlation function on diffuse x-ray scattering from a self-affine surface,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2873–2877 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kubuena, J.

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, R.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leenaers, A. J. G.

D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, and W. W. van den Hoogenhof, “Influence of roughness profile on reflectivity and angle-dependent x-ray fluorescence,” J. Phys. III 4, 1559–1564 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leson, A.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lischka, K.

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lott, D.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luby, S.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mai, H.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maier, G.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Majkova, E.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T. H.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moss, M.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

Névot, L.

P. Croce and L. Névot, “étude des couches minces et des surfaces par réflexion rasante, spéculaire ou diffuse, de rayons x,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 11, 113–125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ohlídal, I.

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palasantzas, G.

G. Palasantzas and J. Krim, “Effect of the form of the height–height correlation function on diffuse x-ray scattering from a self-affine surface,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2873–2877 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peisl, J.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Plotz, W.

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. P.

Richter, M.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

Roth, S.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schärpf, O.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scherr, H.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, F.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

Schwarz, U. D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siffalovic, P.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S. K.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297–2311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, E. B.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297–2311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, H. B.

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297–2311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. A.

V. M. Kaganer, S. A. Stepanov, and R. Köhler, “Bragg diffraction peaks in x-ray diffuse scattering from multilayers with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 16369–16372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thornagel, R.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Timmann, A.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trost, M.

Tsuru, T.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuemmler, J.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tummler, J.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Unglaub, D.

van den Hoogenhof, W. W.

D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, and W. W. van den Hoogenhof, “Influence of roughness profile on reflectivity and angle-dependent x-ray fluorescence,” J. Phys. III 4, 1559–1564 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vignaud, G.

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weser, J.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 1965).

Yamamoto, M.

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Engin. 83, 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Kiessig, “Interferenz von Röntgenstrahlen an dünnen Schichten,” Ann. Phys. 402, 769–788 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, and M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. III (1)

D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, and W. W. van den Hoogenhof, “Influence of roughness profile on reflectivity and angle-dependent x-ray fluorescence,” J. Phys. III 4, 1559–1564 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si multilayers with different barrier layers for applications as extreme ultraviolet mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4074–4081 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Engin. (1)

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Engin. 83, 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (9)

S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, and H. B. Stanley, “X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 2297–2311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. K. G. de Boer, “X-ray scattering and x-ray fluorescence from materials with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 6048–6064 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. K. G. de Boer, “X-ray reflection and transmission by rough surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5297–5305 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Holý and T. Baumbach, “Nonspecular x-ray reflection from rough multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10668–10676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Holý, J. Kubuena, I. Ohlídal, K. Lischka, and W. Plotz, “X-ray reflection from rough layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15896–15903 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson and D. G. Stearns, “Asymmetric extreme ultraviolet scattering from sputter-deposited multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13273–13277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Palasantzas and J. Krim, “Effect of the form of the height–height correlation function on diffuse x-ray scattering from a self-affine surface,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2873–2877 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Kaganer, S. A. Stepanov, and R. Köhler, “Bragg diffraction peaks in x-ray diffuse scattering from multilayers with rough interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 16369–16372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Salditt, D. Lott, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, G. Vignaud, P. Høghøj, O. Schärpf, P. Hinze, and R. Lauer, “Interfacial roughness and related growth mechanisms in sputtered W/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5860–5872 (1996).
[CrossRef]

phys. status solidi (b) (1)

B. Beckhoff, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, M. Krumrey, R. Müller, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “A quarter-century of metrology using synchrotron radiation by PTB in Berlin,” phys. status solidi (b) 246, 1415–1434 (2009).

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, A. Gottwald, R. Klein, B. Meyer, U. D. Schwarz, R. Thornagel, J. Tuemmler, K. Vogel, J. Weser, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy EUV metrology of PTB using synchrotron radiation,” Proc. SPIE 4344, 402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

P. Croce and L. Névot, “étude des couches minces et des surfaces par réflexion rasante, spéculaire ou diffuse, de rayons x,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 11, 113–125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

P. Siffalovic, E. Majkova, L. Chitu, M. Jergel, S. Luby, J. Keckes, G. Maier, A. Timmann, S. Roth, T. Tsuru, T. Harada, M. Yamamoto, and U. Heinzmann, “Characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering,” Vacuum 84, 19–25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 1965).

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