Abstract

Aerosols affect the climate directly through absorption and reflection of sunlight back to space and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. This paper is based on more than three decades of satellite data (1979–1994 and 1996–2012) from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and ozone monitoring instrument (OMI), which have provided measurements of backscattered radiances in the wavelength range from 331 to 380 nm. These data have been used to determine the aerosol climatology and to investigate the influence of the aerosol index (AI) on the ultraviolet index (UVI) in coastal land areas in Serrekunda (13.28°N, 16.34°W), The Gambia, and Dar-es-Salaam (6.8°S, 39.26°E), Tanzania, as well as in inland areas in Kampala (0.19°N, 32.34°E), Uganda. Heavy aerosol loadings were found to occur in the dry seasons at all three locations. To reduce the influence of clouds, we disregarded TOMS and OMI data for days during which the UV reflectivity was larger than 9% and investigated the correlation of the AI with the UVI for the remaining days at the three locations. We found a high correlation coefficient of 0.82 for Serrekunda, but poor correlation for Kampala and Dar-es-Salaam. The average AI for Serrekunda was found to be about three times higher than that for Kampala or Dar-es-Salaam, and a positive trend was found for the AI in Kampala and Dar-es-Salaam, whereas a negative trend was found for the AI in Serrekunda.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

I. Zyrichidou, M. Koukouli, D. Balis, I. Kioutsioukis, A. Poupkou, E. Katragkou, D. Melas, K. Boersma, and M. van Roozendael, “Evaluation of high resolution simulated and OMI retrieved tropospheric NO2 column densities over Southeastern Europe,” Atmos. Res. 122, 55–66 (2013).
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S. O. Eze and A. A. Bola, “Effect of ambient temperature and rainfall on rice production in The Gambia: a case study of the central river region (CRR),” Agricultural Science Service research and development reports Storage pests / Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 2, 79–83 (2013).

2012 (2)

Z. Owiti and W. Zhu, “Spatial distribution of rainfall seasonality over east africa,” J. Geog. Reg. Plan. 5, 409–421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. de Graaf, L. G. Tilstra, P. Wang, and P. Stammes, “Retrieval of the aerosol direct radiative effect over clouds from spaceborne spectrometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D07207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. Ogata and S.-P. Xie, “Semiannual cycle in zonal wind over the equatorial indian ocean,” J. Clim. 24, 6471–6485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Ssenyonga, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, A. Steigen, W. Okullo, and O. Frette, “Analysis of Ozone (O3) and erythemal UV (EUV) measured by TOMS in the equatorial African belt,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 106, 1–7 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. Li, B. E. Carlson, and A. A. Lacis, “A study on the temporal and spatial variability of absorbing aerosols using total ozone mapping spectrometer and ozone monitoring instrument aerosol index data,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D09213 (2009).

S. L. Mkoma, W. Maenhaut, X. Chi, W. Wang, and N. Raes, “Characterisation of PM10 atmospheric aerosols for the wet season 2005 at two sites in east africa,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 631–639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Zyrichidou, M. E. Koukouli, D. S. Balis, E. Katragkou, D. Melas, A. Poupkou, I. Kioutsioukis, R. van der, A. F. K. Boersma, M. van Roozendael, and A. Richter, “Satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns over south-eastern Europe,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6119–6134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lean and D. H. Rind, “How will Earth’s surface temperature change in future decades?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. Rosenfeld, U. Lohmann, G. B. Raga, C. D. O’Dowd, M. Kulmala, S. Fuzzi, A. Reissell, and M. O. Andreae, “Flood or drought: how do aerosols affect precipitation?” Science 321, 1309–1313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Bou Karam, C. Flamant, P. Knippertz, O. Reitebuch, J. Pelon, M. Chong, and A. Dabas, “Dust emissions over the sahel associated with the West African monsoon intertropical discontinuity region: a representative case-study,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 134, 621–634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. Lynn, A. Khain, D. Rosenfeld, and W. L. Woodley, “Effects of aerosols on precipitation from orographic clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, 1–13 (2007).

P. Kiss, I. M. Jánosi, and O. Torres, “Early calibration problems detected in TOMS Earth-Probe aerosol signal,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000  m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The ozone monitoring instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093–1101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. van der, A. D. H. M. U. Peters, H. Eskes, K. F. Boersma, M. Van Roozendael, I. De Smedt, and H. M. Kelder, “Detection of the trend and seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over China,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Edwards, L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, A. Chu, J.-L. Attié, L. Giglio, S. W. Wood, J. Haywood, M. N. Deeter, S. T. Massie, D. C. Ziskin, and J. R. Drummond, “Satellite-observed pollution from southern hemisphere biomass burning,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D14312 (2006).

D. Chand, P. Guyon, P. Artaxo, O. Schmid, G. P. Frank, L. V. Rizzo, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, L. V. Gatti, and M. O. Andreae, “Optical and physical properties of aerosols in the boundary layer and free troposphere over the Amazon Basin during the biomass burning season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 2911–2925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. M. Harrison, A. M. Jones, and R. G. Lawrence, “Major component composition of PM10 and PM2.5 from roadside and urban background sites,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 4531–4538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Leun, X. Tang, and M. Tevini, “Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2002 Assessment,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2, 1–72 (2003).

2002 (3)

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Prospero, P. Ginoux, O. Torres, S. E. Nicholson, and T. E. Gill, “Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product,” Rev. Geophys. 40, 1, 1002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. R. Herman, E. Celarier, and D. Larko, “UV 380  nm reflectivity of the earth’s surface, clouds and aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5335–5352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Kawamoto, and J. E. Penner, “A possible correlation between satellite-derived cloud and aerosol microphysical parameters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1171–1174 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. A. Delmas, A. Druilhet, B. Cros, P. Durand, C. Delon, J. P. Lacaux, J. M. Brustet, D. Sera, C. Affre, A. Guenther, J. Greenberg, W. Baugh, P. Harley, L. Klinger, P. Ginoux, G. Brasseur, P. R. Zimmerman, J. M. Grgoire, E. Janodet, A. Tournier, P. Perros, T. Marion, A. Gaudichet, H. Cachier, S. Ruellan, P. Masclet, S. Cautenet, D. Poulet, C. B. Biona, D. Nganga, J. P. Tathy, A. Minga, J. Loemba-Ndembi, and P. Ceccato, “Experiment for regional sources and sinks of oxidants (EXPRESSO): an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30609–30624 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, “Comparison of the TOMS aerosols index with Sun-photometer aerosol optical thickness: results and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269–6279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosols properties from satellite measurements of backscattering ultraviolet radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099–17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, “Correction to derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis by o. Torres et al.,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 23321 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, and J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface uv irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols: 1. cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, and E. Celarier, “Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D14 (1997).

J. R. Herman and E. A. Celarier, “Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340  nm to 380  nm from TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28003–28011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman and R. S. Fraser, “Confirmation of the smoke particles effect on clouds and climate,” Science 277, 1636–1639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, C. J. Seftor, O. Torres, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, T. F. Eck, and B. N. Holben, “Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 745–748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. J. Kaufman and T. Nakajima, “Effect of Amazon smoke on cloud microphysics and albedo,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 729–744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. A. J. Coakley, R. L. Bernstein, and P. A. Durkee, “Effect of ship stack effluents on cloud reflectance,” Science 237, 1020–1022 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

L. T. Molina and M. J. Molina, “Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185 to 350  nm wavelength range,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 14501–14508 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, “Characteristics of maximum-value composite images from temporal AVHRR data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 1417–1434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formulae for its calculation in the homosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the estimation of total ozone in an atmospheric column from the measurements of its ultraviolet radiance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 899–911 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

B. M. Herman and S. R. Browning, “A numerical solution to the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 559–566 (1965).
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R. A. Delmas, A. Druilhet, B. Cros, P. Durand, C. Delon, J. P. Lacaux, J. M. Brustet, D. Sera, C. Affre, A. Guenther, J. Greenberg, W. Baugh, P. Harley, L. Klinger, P. Ginoux, G. Brasseur, P. R. Zimmerman, J. M. Grgoire, E. Janodet, A. Tournier, P. Perros, T. Marion, A. Gaudichet, H. Cachier, S. Ruellan, P. Masclet, S. Cautenet, D. Poulet, C. B. Biona, D. Nganga, J. P. Tathy, A. Minga, J. Loemba-Ndembi, and P. Ceccato, “Experiment for regional sources and sinks of oxidants (EXPRESSO): an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30609–30624 (1999).
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N. A. Krotkov, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, V. Fioletov, and J. Kerr, “Satellite estimation of spectral surface uv irradiance in the presence of tropospheric aerosols: 1. cloud-free case,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8779–8793 (1998).
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B. D. Bou Karam, C. Flamant, P. Knippertz, O. Reitebuch, J. Pelon, M. Chong, and A. Dabas, “Dust emissions over the sahel associated with the West African monsoon intertropical discontinuity region: a representative case-study,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 134, 621–634 (2008).
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J. M. Prospero, P. Ginoux, O. Torres, S. E. Nicholson, and T. E. Gill, “Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product,” Rev. Geophys. 40, 1, 1002 (2002).
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O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, “A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398–413 (2002).
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O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosols properties from satellite measurements of backscattering ultraviolet radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099–17110 (1998).
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N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, C. J. Seftor, O. Torres, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, T. F. Eck, and B. N. Holben, “Detection of biomass burning smoke from TOMS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 745–748 (1996).
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N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, “Comparison of the TOMS aerosols index with Sun-photometer aerosol optical thickness: results and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269–6279 (1999).
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T. Ssenyonga, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlback, A. Steigen, W. Okullo, and O. Frette, “Analysis of Ozone (O3) and erythemal UV (EUV) measured by TOMS in the equatorial African belt,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 106, 1–7 (2010).

Stowe, L. L.

T. F. Eck, P. K. Bhartia, P. H. Hwang, and L. L. Stowe, “Reflectivity of earth’s surface and clouds in ultraviolet from satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4287–4296 (1987).
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R. A. Delmas, A. Druilhet, B. Cros, P. Durand, C. Delon, J. P. Lacaux, J. M. Brustet, D. Sera, C. Affre, A. Guenther, J. Greenberg, W. Baugh, P. Harley, L. Klinger, P. Ginoux, G. Brasseur, P. R. Zimmerman, J. M. Grgoire, E. Janodet, A. Tournier, P. Perros, T. Marion, A. Gaudichet, H. Cachier, S. Ruellan, P. Masclet, S. Cautenet, D. Poulet, C. B. Biona, D. Nganga, J. P. Tathy, A. Minga, J. Loemba-Ndembi, and P. Ceccato, “Experiment for regional sources and sinks of oxidants (EXPRESSO): an overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30609–30624 (1999).
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P. Kiss, I. M. Jánosi, and O. Torres, “Early calibration problems detected in TOMS Earth-Probe aerosol signal,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07803 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time series of the simulated clear-sky noon UVI and the noon UVI derived from TOMS and OMI data for Serrekunda for the period 1979 to 2012.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time series of the simulated clear-sky noon UVI and the noon UVI derived from TOMS and OMI data for Serrekunda for the period 1979 to 2012. Only days with UV reflectivities less than or equal to 9% were considered.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Box and whisker plots of monthly average AI values derived from TOMS and OMI data for (a) Dar-es-Salaam, (b) Kampala, and (c) Serrekunda, respectively, for the period 1979–2012.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ratio between the TOMS-derived monthly average UVI (TOMS UVI) and the corresponding simulated clear-sky noon UVI (clear-sky UVI) versus monthly average AI for (a) Dar-es-Salaam, (b) Kampala, and (c) Serrekunda for the period 1979–2000.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Yearly averages of AI for the period 1979–2012 for (a) Dar-es-Salaam, (b) Kampala, and (c) Serrekunda.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Monthly Average AI Values and Standard Deviations Derived from TOMS and OMI Data for the Period 1979–2012

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Table 2. Aerosol Index (AI) Data Derived from TOMS and OMI Data for Dar-es-Salaam, Kampala, and Serrekunda for the Period 1979–2012, Showing Minimum and Maximum Values of the Yearly Averages as well as the Overall Yearly Average and the Standard Deviation of the AI

Equations (8)

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Faer=Fclr(1η),
η=1exp(kτ)=1FaerFclr,
AI=a+bτ
η=1exp(kabkbAI).
η=1exp(kbAI).
ln(FaerFclr)=kbAI.
AI=100[log10(I331MI360M)log10(I331CI360C)],
r=(xix¯)(yiy¯)[(xix¯)2(yiy¯)2]1/2,

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