Abstract

We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2m×2m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

C. D. Graham-Rowe, “Solar-powered lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 64–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1993

V. Krupkin, Y. Kagan, and A. Yogev, “Nonimaging optics and solar laser pumping at the Weizmann Institute,” Proc. SPIE 2016, 50–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1984

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973

W. Koechner, “Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3162–3170 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966

Almeida, J.

Arashi, H.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Asami, T.

T. Asami, Acrylic Resin (Nikkan Kogyo Shinbun Inc., 1970) [in Japanese].

Baasandash, C.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bagheri, B.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Rapaport, S. Zhao, G. Xiao, A. Howard, and M. Bass, “Temperature dependence of the 1.06-μm stimulated emission cross section of neodymium in YAG and in GSGG,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7052–7057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D.

Daito, K.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinh, T. H.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120  watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd: YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dobrusin, V.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Funatsu, T.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Graham-Rowe, C. D.

C. D. Graham-Rowe, “Solar-powered lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 64–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hasegawa, K.

Howard, A.

Ikesue, A.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, K.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishigame, M.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ishioka, M.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Kagan, J.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, Y.

V. Krupkin, Y. Kagan, and A. Yogev, “Nonimaging optics and solar laser pumping at the Weizmann Institute,” Proc. SPIE 2016, 50–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaimai, A.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Kido, K.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, “Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3162–3170 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1985), Vol. 5, Chap. 6, pp. 392–397.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1985), Vol. 5, Chaps. 2 and 3.

Krupkin, V.

V. Krupkin, Y. Kagan, and A. Yogev, “Nonimaging optics and solar laser pumping at the Weizmann Institute,” Proc. SPIE 2016, 50–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuboyama, H.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120  watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd: YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lando, M.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

Linyekin, B.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, S.

Mohamed, M. S.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motokoshi, S.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murahara, M.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, J.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

Ogata, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Ohkubo, T.

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120  watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd: YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oka, Y.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

Okamoto, Y.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Rapaport, A.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Rapaport, S. Zhao, G. Xiao, A. Howard, and M. Bass, “Temperature dependence of the 1.06-μm stimulated emission cross section of neodymium in YAG and in GSGG,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7052–7057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saiki, T.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasahara, N.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Satoh, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Szipocs, F.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Tuji, M.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

Yabe, T.

T. H. Dinh, T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, and H. Kuboyama, “120  watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd: YAG rod,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2670–2672 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yanagitani, K.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yanagitani, T.

Yasunaga, N.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yogev, A.

V. Krupkin, Y. Kagan, and A. Yogev, “Nonimaging optics and solar laser pumping at the Weizmann Institute,” Proc. SPIE 2016, 50–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar pumped 80  W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, C. G.

Zhao, S.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Yabe, B. Bagheri, T. Ohkubo, S. Uchida, M. Yoshida, T. Funatsu, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, N. Yasunaga, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, Y. Okamoto, and K. Yanagitani, “100  W-class solar pumped laser for sustainable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, “Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3162–3170 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18  W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Magnesium Technol.

T. Yabe, T. Ohkubo, T. H. Dinh, H. Kuboyama, J. Nakano, and K. Okamoto, “Demonstration of solar-pumped laser-induced magnesium from magnesium oxide,” Magnesium Technol. 2012, 55–58 (2012).

Nat. Photonics

C. D. Graham-Rowe, “Solar-powered lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 64–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Lando, J. Kagan, B. Linyekin, and V. Dobrusin, “A solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser in the high collection efficiency regime,” Opt. Commun. 222, 371–381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Status Solidi A

J. Dong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, F. Szipocs, and K. Ueda, “Temperature-dependent stimulated emission cross section and concentration quenching in highly doped Nd3+:YAG crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 2565–2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

V. Krupkin, Y. Kagan, and A. Yogev, “Nonimaging optics and solar laser pumping at the Weizmann Institute,” Proc. SPIE 2016, 50–60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

VLOC Inc., “YAG yttrium aluminum garnet laser materials,” http://users.unimi.it/aqm/wp-content/uploads/YAGBrochure.pdf .

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1985), Vol. 5, Chap. 6, pp. 392–397.

ASTM International, “Reference spectra derived from SMARTS,” ASTM G173-03, v. 2.9.2 (2004).

T. Asami, Acrylic Resin (Nikkan Kogyo Shinbun Inc., 1970) [in Japanese].

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1985), Vol. 5, Chaps. 2 and 3.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

100-W-class solar-pumped laser system with 2 m × 2 m Fresnel lens. A laser head is located at the focal zone of the Fresnel lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cone-shaped hybrid pumping cavity; (b) and (c) liquid light-guide lens configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Solar power distribution at the focal point of the Fresnel lens by experiment and ray-tracing simulation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Total absorbed power of Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG rod for various conical length L and diameter D of the LLGL. The reflectivity of the inner wall cavity is 70%

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absorption distribution of a Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG rod for various diameters of LLGLs. Curved lines are the averaged distribution. The reflectivity of the inner wall cavity is 70%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Absorbed power valid for lasing of various pumping cavities. R C is the reflectivity of inner wall of cavity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Absorption distribution of a Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG rod pumped by 14-mm-diameter light guide lens for various refraction index of the coolants. Curved lines are the averaged distribution. Here we assume that the inner wall cavity reflectivity of 100%, there is no absorption loss of coolant, and the cooling blanket is not considered of from the light guide lens structure.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Beam radius as a function of the location along propagation axis. The line is an M 2 = 137 best fit to the generalized beam propagation equation. The laser beam was generated by the 14 mm diameter LLGL and the Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG rod.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Output laser power (thin line) and input solar power (thick line) as function of time on 20 February 2012.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Continuous wave output laser power of the Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG rod for various pumping cavities. RC is the reflectivity of the inner wall of the cavity. Symbols are experimental result and lines are the linear fitting curves.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Calculated (lines) and experimental (symbols) results of output laser power for the Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG rod, which was pumped by a 70% reflectivity hybrid concentrator and the 14 mm diameter LLGL. R is the reflectivity of the output coupler. The thin and thick lines are calculated results of R = 90 % and R = 85 % , respectively, and are defined by Eq. (3).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Laser Performance of Φ 6 × 100 mm Nd:YAG Rod

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = 1.4779 + 5.0496 × 10 3 λ 2 6.9486 × 10 7 λ 4 ,
B = P M x 2 M y 2 .
P out = 1 R 1 + R ( 2 η 2 l α ln R P in A I S ) ,
η = η A η Q η S η B ,

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